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50 Cards in this Set

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pith
the soft, spongy central cylinder of parenchymatous tissue in the stems of dicotyledonous plants
phloem
the part of a vascular bundle consisting of sieve tubes, companion cells, parenchyma, and fibers and forming the food-conducting tissue of a plant.
dicots
A flowering plant with two embryonic seed leaves or cotyledons that usually appear at germination
monocots
Any of a class of angiosperm plants having a single cotyledon in the seed. Monocotyledons have leaves with parallel veins, flower parts in multiples of three, and fibrous root systems. Their primary vascular bundles are scattered throughout the stem, not arranged in a ring as in eudicotyledons. Grasses, palms, lilies, irises, and orchids are monocotyledons. See more at leaf. Compare eudicotyledon.
meristem
embryonic tissue in plants; undifferentiated, growing, actively dividing cells
pericycle
the outermost cell layer of the stele in a plant, frequently becoming a multilayered zone.
cortex
the portion of a stem between the epidermis and the vascular tissue; bark
tracheids
A cell in the xylem of vascular plants
mesophyll
the parenchyma, usually containing chlorophyll, that forms the interior parts of a leaf
periderm
the cork-producing tissue of stems together with the cork layers and other tissues derived from it.
turgid
swollen; distended; tumid.
osmosis
the tendency of a fluid, usually water, to pass through a semipermeable membrane into a solution where the solvent concentration is higher, thus equalizing the concentrations of materials on either side of the membrane.
tonoplast
a membrane separating a vacuole from the surrounding cytoplasm in a plant cell.
tension
the force producing such deformation
mycorrhizae
a symbiotic association of the mycelium of a fungus, esp. a basidiomycete, with the roots of certain plants, in which the hyphae form a closely woven mass around the rootlets or penetrate the cells of the root.
guttation
a process in which water in liquid form is given off by plants.
cohesion
the congenital union of one part with another
chemiosmosis
A theoretical mechanism (proposed by Mitchell) to explain energy transduction in the mitochondrion. As a general mechanism it is the coupling of one enzyme catalysed reaction to another using the transmembrane flow of an intermediate species. For example Cytochrome oxidase pumps protons across the mitochondrial inner membrane and ATP synthesis is driven by re entry of protons through the ATP synthesising protein complex. The alternative model is production of a chemical intermediate species, but no compound capable of coupling these reactions has ever been identified.
plasmolyze
To subject to plasmolysis.
transpiration
the passage of water through a plant from the roots through the vascular system to the atmosphere
humus
the dark organic material in soils, produced by the decomposition of vegetable or animal matter and essential to the fertility of the earth.
loams
A mixture of moist clay and sand, and often straw, used especially in making bricks and foundry molds
macronutrients
An element, such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, or nitrogen, required in large proportion for the normal growth and development of a plant.
micronutrients
A substance, such as a vitamin or mineral, that is essential in minute amounts for the proper growth and metabolism of a living organism
topsoil
the fertile, upper part of the soil.
nitrogenase
an enzyme complex that catalyzes the reduction of molecular nitrogen in the nitrogen-fixation process of bacteria.
nodules
A small knoblike outgrowth, as those found on the roots of many leguminous plants
bacteroids
Any of various structurally modified bacteria, such as those occurring on the root nodules of leguminous plants.
mycorrhizae
a symbiotic association of the mycelium of a fungus, esp. a basidiomycete, with the roots of certain plants, in which the hyphae form a closely woven mass around the rootlets or penetrate the cells of the root.
horizons
the line or circle that forms the apparent boundary between earth and sky
sporophyte
the form of a plant in the alternation of generations that produces asexual spores
gametophyte
the sexual form of a plant in the alternation of generations.
monoecious
having both male and female organs in the same individual; hermaphroditic
dioecious
having the male and female organs in separate and distinct individuals; having separate sexes.
microspore
the smaller of the two kinds of spores characteristically produced by seed plants and some fern allies, developing into a male gametophyte
megaspore
the larger of the two kinds of spores characteristically produced by seed plants and a few fern allies, developing into a female gametophyte
scutellum
the shieldlike cotyledon of certain monocots
coleorhiza
the sheath that envelops the radicle in certain plants and that is penetrated by the root in germination
stock
supply of goods kept on hand for sale to customers by a merchant, distributor, manufacturer, etc.; inventory
scion
Also, cion. a shoot or twig, esp. one cut for grafting or planting; a cutting
auxin
a class of substances that in minute amounts regulate or modify the growth of plants, esp. root formation, bud growth, and fruit and leaf drop
ethylene
containing the ethylene group
tropisms
an orientation of an organism to an external stimulus, as light, esp. by growth rather than by movement
statoliths
Crystalline particles of calcium carbonate and a protein adhering to the gelatinous membrane of the maculae of the utricle and saccule.
phytoalexins
any of a class of plant compounds that accumulate at the site of invading microorganisms and confer resistance to disease.
gravitropism
oriented growth with respect to the force of gravity.
phytochrome
a plant pigment that is associated with the absorption of light in the photoperiodic response and that may regulate various types of growth and development
senescene
A series of changes in the body which are related to increasing mortality with increasing age. Modern views hold that it is essentially a continuing and increasing failure of adaptability to environmental variations. When the range of environments to which the body can adapt is less than the minimum range normally experienced, death results. In the past, many causes of this decreased adaptability have been suggested, but modern theory suggests that it is due ultimately to errors in the replication of DNA in cell division and/or errors in the production of proteins and enzymes by cells. These errors accumulate as a result of mutation in the hereditary material as the individual becomes older.
gibberellin
any of a class of growth hormones occurring in fungi and plants.
cytokinins
Any of a class of plant hormones that promote cell division and growth and delay the senescence of leaves