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67 Cards in this Set

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Justinian's Code
a collection of the ancient laws of Rome
Roman Catholic Church
the branch of the Christian Church that is headed by the Pope.
Eastern Orthodoc Church
the Eastern branch of the Christian Church, headed by the patriarch in Constantinople
Hagia Sophia
a cathedral built in Constantinople, featuring a dome over a rectangular building.
Crusades
in the Middle Ages, a series of campaigns led by European Christians seeking to regain the Holy Land from the Muslin Turks
Golden Horde
The Mongol army of nomadic tribesmen, led by Genghis Khan, that invaded Asia in the 1200s.
Bedouin
nomadic Arab
Islam
the monotheistic religion founded in Arabia by mohammed during the seventh century A.D.
Muslim
a follower of Islam
Koran
The holy book of Islam
Five Pillars of Islam
the five religious duties of Muslims, imcluding prayer, fasting and holy pilgrimages to the holy city of Mecca.
Hegira
Mohammed's flight from Mecca to Medina
jihad
an Arab term for "struggle," applied to the effort to convert or conquer nonbelievers.
Sunni
the group of Muslims who hold traditional Islamic beliefs
Shiite
one of the group of Muslims who broke away from the main body of Islam in the seventh century.
Middle Ages
The period from about A.D. 500 to 1500 that began with the decline of the Roman Emire.
feudalism
the political system in which a king granted the use of land to nobles in return for loyalty, military assistance, and services.
manorial system
the economic system in Europe during the Middle Ages, based on large estates owned by lords and worked by serfs.
middle class
in the Middle Ages, an urban social class that included merchants, artisans, their families,, and others who did not have feudal obligations; later, those who were socially and economically between the working and the nobility or very wealthy upper class.
Battle of Hastings
the battle in the 1066 in which the Normans, led by William the Conqueror, defeated the Saxon King and took control of England.
Common law
a system of law developed in England in medieval times, based on earlier royal court decisions and established customs
Magna Carta
meaning "Great Charter," a document agreed to by King John of England in 1215 that recognized the barons' rights and privileges.
Parliament
an assembly of representatives who made the laws of a nation; in England, consists of the House of Lords and House of Commons.
limited monarchy
a government in which the ruler's powers are limited by law or by a governing body, such as a parliament.
absolute monarchy
a government in which a ruler has complete power.
Concordat of Worms
an agreement reached in 1122 between the Church and the Holy ROman Emperor that recognized the Church as the supreme authority in spiritual matters and ruled that monarchs could have no authority over the Church
heresy
the holding of beliefs considered wrong by the Church
Inquisition
in Europe, a thirteenth-century Church court that sought out and tried persons suspected of heresy
Reconquest
the 500 year struggle by Spanish Christian kingdoms to recover Spain from the Muslims.
Hanseatic League
alliance of German cities to promote and protect trade in the 1300s.
Scholastics
a group of medieval philosophers who argued that reason could be used to explain Christian teachings.
Romanesque
a style of architecture developed during the Middle Ages, characterized by rounded arches, thick walls, small windows, and little ornamentation
Gothic
a style of architecture developed during hte twelfth century, which freatured pointed arches, flying buttresses, and large, stained-glass windows
Black Death
also known as the bubonic plague; a contagious, usually fatal disease transmitted by freas from infected rats, that reached epidemic proportions in fourteenth century Europe.
Hundred year's War
a series of conflicts (1337-2453) between France and England over French lands held by the English King.
Wars of the Roses
a civil war (1455-1485) between two rival branches of the English royal family
Babylonian Captivity
a term used by Romans to describe the period (1309-1377) when all the Popes were French, ruled from Avignon, and supported policies favorable to France.
Great Schism
the period when two Popes held office at the same time (1378-1417)
Justinian
Byzantine ruler
Theodora
Justinian's wife, who he would always go to for advice.
Vladimir
Kievan prince who brought Christianity to Russia.
Ivan III, "The Great"
founder of unified Russia
Mohammed
Founder of Islam
Avicenna
Muslim philosopher
Venerable Bede
English monk who completed a history of the Church in England
Saint Benedict
Italian monk who established the Benedictine order
Saint Patrick
Fifth-century Irish monk who convered the Irish to Christianity
Clovis
Frankish ruler
Charlemagne
Frankish king who was dedicated to spreading Christianity in Europe
Eleanor of Aquitaine
Ruler of Aquitaine and the wife of Louis VII of France and later of Henry II of England.
Alfred the Great
West Saxon king
William the Conqueror
Duke of Normandy who defeated the Saxons at the Battle of Hasting and then became king of England.
King John
Early English King who signed the Magna Carta
Philip Augustus
French monarch who defeeated the English and claimed English territories in northern France.
Pope Gregory VII
Pope who was involved in a struggle over authority with the Holy Roman Emperor.
Henry IV
Holy Roman emperor
Pope Innocent III
Pope who claimed the right to intervene in the affairs of any European state.
Saint Dominic
Founder of the Dominican order of friars
Saint Francis of Assisi
Founder of the Franciscan order of friars.
Thomas Aquinas
Dominican monk and scholastic philosopher
Roger Bacon
English monk and philosopher
Dante
Italian author who wrote the Divine comedy.
Geoffrey Chaucer
English author who wrote the Canterbury Tales.
Joan of Arc
French military leader and heroine.
Henry VII
English king and founder of the Tudor dynasty.
John Wycliffe
Religious reformer who completed the first English translation of the Bible.
John Huss
Bohemian religious reformer.