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57 Cards in this Set

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Which elements are lipids composed of?
C H O
Much less O than in carbohydrates
What types of lipids are there?
Neutral fats/triglycerides
Phospholipids
Steroids
Eicosanoids
4 subgroups
Lipids are:
_________ source of energy fuel.
Insulate ______ from heat loss.
Concentrated

Deeper tissues
Lipids:
Protect ______
Important ___ ___ components
Body organs

Plasma Membrane
Lipids:
Various types of steroids (3)

Solubilize _____________.
Vitamin D
Sex hormones
Cholesterol

Fat soluble vitamins
Lipids:
Type of Eicosanoid involved in blood clotting, inflamation, and labor contractions
Prostaglandins; also known as 'local hormones'
Triglyceride is composed of?
Processes by which this unit of fat is formed and split apart?
3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol molecule
Dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis
Describe saturated, unsaturated (mono, poly) fats.
Saturated-solid at room temp; single bonds hold Cs
Unsaturated-liquid room temp; at least one double bond between Cs (Mono one double, Poly more than one double)
Cholesterol is transported through the body in what?
Explain why HDL if 'good'
Lipoprotein packets

Transport excess cholesterol back to the liver where excreted w bile
Saturated fats __ LDL levels
Unsaturated fats do what?
Trans fats do what?
Increase

Decrease LDL; Increase HDL

Increase LDL; Decrease HDL
How are Trans fats formed?
from unsaturated fats that are hydrogenated
What are the components of a phospholipd?
___ in cell membranes
___ insulates many neurons
2 fatty acids and a phosphorous group
-phosphatidylcholine
-sphingomyelin
A steroid is a ___ molecule with ___ interlocking hydrocarbon rings
flat
4
Eicosanoids are made of a ___ carbon fatty acid. They are found where?
20
Cell membranes
____ _____ hormones are part of the steroid group and are involved in what?
Adrenal cortical

calcium ion concentrations
Which 3 vitamins are fat soluble?
A E K
____ is a bile salt (steroid) that emulsifies fat.
Lecithin
Leukotrienes and thromboxanes are part of which lipid group
Eicosanoids
Collagen, Keratin and Elastin are all proteins involved in what?
Proteins involved in structural support of the body.
Acin and Myosin are proteins involved in what?
Movement; these are contractile proteins
Hemoglobin and lipoproteins are both proteins involved in What?
Plasma proteins can act as what? example...
Proteins involved in transport

Buffers; ie albumin
2 proteins involved in metabolic regulation are?
Growth hormone
Insulin
2 proteins involved in the body's defense are?
Antibodies
Immunoglobulins
The structure of an amino acid is composed of?
Amino group
Carboxyl group
Central C and H with an R group attached
The secondary structure of a protein can be either ___ or ___.
Alpha helix (spring coil)
Beta pleated sheets (folded arrangement)
Tertiary proteins are held together by multiple types of bonds where as 4 structure has more than 1___.
Polypeptide chain; ie hemoglobin
Keratin, elastin, collagen, actin and myosin are all what type of protein?
Fibrous
Describes structure; does not describe function
Describe globular proteins and name 2 general categories of them.
compact, spherical, composed of 3 and 4 structures
antibodies and hormones
Protein denaturation can be caused by ___ and ___. This will be irreversible if what?
Increase in temp
Decrease in pH
Lose 3 structure (active site will be messed up)
Biological catalysts are also known as ___. What type of protein are most of these?
Enzymes

Globular
Characteristics of Enzymes are?
Not changed by rxn; reusable
susceptible denaturation
chemically specific
work at optimum pHs and temps
lower activation energy
end in 'ase'
_____ is the protein part of a Holoenzyme. _____ is an ion, metal or organic molecule which is also part of the Holoenzyme.
Apoenzyme
Cofactor (organic cofactor is called coenzyme)
2 mechanisms of action of an enzyme are?
Lock and Key model; Induced fit
A nucleotide of DNA is composed of what? What type of bonds hold the nucleotides together?
Nitrogen containing base
Pentose sugar
Phosphate group

H bonds
DNA is said to undergo ____ replication because?
Semiconservative. Half of the DNA molecule is the 'old' strand.
RNA is __ stranded and the 3 types of RNA are?
Single. Messenger, Transfer, Ribosomal
ATP is composed of?
What is adenosine?
Adenosine plus 3 phosphate groups.
Adenine plus ribose
ATP is represented by ___ bonds. How many kcal of energy is represented by one of these bonds?
Squiggle (P + squiggle)
7.3-7.4 kcal
Functions extracellular region?
Source nutrients/oxygen
site disposal metabolic wastes
Link between the cells
Functions of the cytoplasm?
Intracellular transport
Storage; nutrients, raw materials
Another name for intracellular transport?
Cytoplasmic streaming
Name the membranous organelles:
ER
Golgi body
lysosomes
peroxisomes
mitochondria
nucleus
Name the non-membranous organelles:
cytoskeleton
microvilli
centrioles
cilia
ribosomes
proteosomes
The function of centioles:
The structure of centrioles:
Organize microtubules of the spindle apparatus-pull the chromosomes apart during mitosis. 9 groups of microtubule triplets
Describe a vacuole:
membrane bound sac or vesicle
temporary
storage site
vesicular transport
Describe an inclusion:
Non membrane bound
temporary
includes glycogen granules, pigments, protein/lipid droplets
Describe the glycocalyx:
made up of glycoproteins within the cell membrane
forms web outside of cell
Provides highly specific biological markers by which cells recognize one another
Plasma membrane is made up of what?
Phospholipids, proteins, cholesterol and glycolipids
Fluid mosaic model describes what?
The bilayer of lipids imbedded w dispersed proteins
Functions of membrane proteins?
Transport
Enzymatic activity
Receptors for signal transduction
Intercellular adhesion/guiding cellular migration
Cell-cell recognition
Attachment to cytoskeleton/extracellular matrix
What molecules are freely permeable through the phosphlipid bilayer?
Nonpolar, uncharged molecules
O2
CO2
Steroids
What molecules are impermeable through the phospholipid bilayer?
Polar, charged molecules
Ions
-these pass through channels or are actively pumped across
How does H2O get through the phospholipid bilayer?
Periodic gaps phospolipid bilayer
Aquaporins-transmembrane pores
The resting membrane potential refers to what?
Positive/negative charges on the outside/inside of the PM
-also known as charge potential.
The RMP is maintained by what 3 processes
Na/K pump
PM 75X more permeable to K than Na
PM impermeable lg anionic proteins
Factors that influence the transport of materials across the PM:
Size
Charge
Presence of channels/transport proteins
Solubility
Cholesterol is made where?

An ideal HDL:LDL ration would be?
Liver

4:1