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50 Cards in this Set

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Islam
-3rd monotheistic religion after Judaism and christianity
-started in what is now saudi arabia at the end of the 6th century
-means 'submission to higher valid authority'
Hijaz
-Northwest part of Saudi Arabia
-contains two main cities: mecca and Yathrib (medina)
Mecca
-Still holiest Muslim city
-contains Kaba
-birthplace of Muhammad
Medina
-first known as Yathrib
-means city in Arabic and state in Jewish
-Muhammad came here in 622
2 major powers at the time Islam started
-Sasanian Empire
-Byzantine Empire
Sasanian Empire
-center is Iran
-contains Iran, Iraq, east Turkey
-not a monotheistic empire: believed int he interplay of earth/fire
Byzantine Empire
-(Eastern Roman Empire)
-After roman empire split this half became centered at Constantinople (present day Istanbul)
-Practise Greek Orthodox Chrisianity
Kaaba
-Shrine made of black stone of 3 godesses
-main destination for mecca pilgrimage
-Believed to be built by Abraham and Ishmael (to who Arabs trace their decent)
-Allah is one of the godesses
Quraysh
-tribe (not neccesarily a rural kinship) that was main population of Mecca
-the higher up in the tribe you are the closer you are to Kaaba (the center)
Young Muhammad
-employee of caravans from Hijaz to Syria
-came into contact with many orthodox Jews
Hagar
-concubine of Abraham
-mother of Ishmael
-In islam she is believed to be Abraham's true wife
Allah
-one of the godesses on the Kaaba
-Muhammad used this name as name for new God
Muhhamad
-570-632
-Born in Mecca
-clan of hashim of tribe Quraysh
-married Khadija
-vision of archangel Gabriel
-began preaching what came to be known as Qur'an
-Moved to Medina in 622 after death of uncle and wife
-fought off mecca until he became strongest authority in Arabia
-Final seal of Prophets
Hegira (hijra)
Muhammad's emigration from Mecca and into Medina
UMMA
community of believers
Arabic
-language existed long before Islam
-Not all Arabs are Muslim
-Not all Muslims are Arab
-not the native language of majority of Muslims
Khalifat Rasul Allah
-'Replacement of God's prophet'-full name of leader of Islam after Muhammad
-Linguistically corrupted to 'Caliph'
-this person can't change/add to the religion
Determinants of Khalifat Legitimacy
1.Proximity to the prophet
2.High standing of family in Quraysh
Al Khulafa AL Rashidun
-632-661
-'The Rightly Guided Caliphs'
-the first 4 caliphs
Turkish
-start appearing in 830
-populate heavily in mid 900's
-track their movement from northeast to southwest
-young turks are taken in as soldiers for Private Caliph Units
-they were trained in culture and converted to Islam
-They were a 'One Generation Elite' - their children didn't inherit their military positions
Gazy
Effort to extend the boundaries of Islam
Gaza
Person who carries out the Gazy effort
-leads violent raids
-supossed to be orthodox muslims but are actually Sufis
Sufism
-people were called Sufis (man of wool)
-they were a mystic group of muslims who claimed a connection to Allah
-in late 10th century brought many converts to Islam
Dervish
one of a class of sufi muslim devotees
-created many different brotherhoods like monks
Seljuk
-state created by the people and not by the govt.
-created in 10th century
-people are called 'seljuks'
Ogauz
confederation of large tribes
1055
Seljuks take over Baghdad but not by force and take title of Saltan not Caliph.
-The turks have taken high power but still have not taken over ethnic and cutlural standards
Asia Minor
Anatolia=Most of Turkey today
-became most dense area with turkish speakers
Battle of Mazikirt
-Manzikirt is city's name
-Byzantines sent army to push turks east but seljuks backed the turkish army
-occured in 1071
-Alp Arslan led battle
Alp Arslan
'lion hero'
-sultan that led battle of Manzikirt
Alp=courageous
Arslan=lion
Ummayads
661-750
-powerful meccan family
-killed 4th caliph (Ali)
-all caliphs come from this group from now on
Damascus
Ummayads moved Islamic center to this city which starts the end of arab speaking dominance in the religion
Persian and Greek
When Islam beat groups militarily survivors would try to serve the rulers in any way and these languages were important to becoming a democrat in the govt.
Abbasids
Overthrow the Ummayads
-they are another strong meccan family
-claim Caliphate by kinship (one of them was Muhammad's uncle)
-recruited non arab speakers and claimed the ummayads were prejudiced
-they spread islam to asia
-increasingly de arabized the caliphate from administrators to governors to rulers (they became mutliethnic and non arab speaking)
Abbasid army and fight against ummayads
-soldiers were from province Khorasan
-Defeated Ummayads by 750 to take caliphate
-moved capital from damascus to baghdad (on bank of tigris)
Line of Abbasid Caliphates
750-1250
Effective rule of Abbasids
750-950
Shi'ah
Shii-person of this sect
Shia-the sect itself
Shi'ah belief
Only caliphs can be descendents of Ali and Fatima-the Faction of Ali-Only rightful leaders of Islam
Ali
Caliph from 656-661
-son in law of Muhammad
-last of the rightly guided caliphs
-killed by Ummayads
Battle of Karbala
-year 680
-b/w Ali's group and Ummayads
Husayn
-second son of Ali
-led Ali's group against Ummayads in battle of Karbala
-was martyred and every year shi'ites commemorate the battle and recognize his martyrdom as the beginning of their sect
Imam
leader of a prayer to several muslims. to shia group this meant basically the caliph. they believe there were 12 of them and the 12th is in occlusion til the day of judgement
Sunna Muslims
-believe all 4 original caliphs were legit whereas Shias only believe Ali was legit
-they are the majority of muslims that developed in opposition to shias
Fatimids
Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi, head of a sect of Syrian Shia Muslims creates his caliphate in northwest africa. takes egypt in 969 (date of official establishment of Cairo as capital)
Fustat
-located at tip of nile delta
-first capital of muslim egypt, precursor to Cairo
Crusades
-start 1096 after Pope excites people to regain Jerusalem
-take back Jerusalem in 1099
-first crusading king is annointed in Bethleham in 1100
Nur al Din
-not arabic but name is and means 'light of islam'
-starts the rebellion
-appointed champion of Jihad in 1150
Jihad
any act to strive for the religion
Salah al Din al Ayyubi
-Known as 'Saladin'
-is the general's nephew under Nur al Din
-in 1160 he takes palestine against Fatimids and removes them from egypt
-creates new Ayyubi state in 1171 and remains Sultan
-takes over Jerusalem in 1187 against crusaders