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56 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what does a persistent or repetitive low flow stat cause in the heart
myocardial hibernation - can be revered by reperfusion
what is ischemic preconditioning
development of resistance to infarction by cardiac myocytes previously exposed to ischemia
what initiates atherosclerosis
repetitive endothelial injury - this causes the chronic inflammatory state
hypothyoidism is a common cause of an elevated CK
**
what does elevated FSH signify is patients with Klinefelter's syndrome
gonadal failure
what is used to distinguish between ectopic ACTH tumor vs. pituitary adenoma
high-dose dexamethasone test
*pituitary adenoma is suppressed while ectopic is not
what can atrial fibrillation precipitate in a patient with atrial stenosis
severe hypotension and acute pulmonary edema
what neurotransmitters is associated with NMDA receptors
glutamate
what receptor is associated with development tolerance to morphine
NMDA
what is associated with mildly elevated unconjugated bilirubin with no apparent liver disease
Gilbert syndrome
what receptors on osteoblasts are increased in response to decreased estrogen leading to bone resorption
RANK
what is associated with cricopharyngous muscle dysfunction
zenker diverticulum
what mediates intimal hyperplasia and fibrosis
smooth muscle cells that migrate to the media
what is the major compensatory mechanism of aortic regurge
increased preload
abnormal activation of what is associated with causing autodigestion during acute pancreatitis
tryspin
increased prolactin leads to decreased what
GnRH - Estrogen and progesteron
this neurotransmitter is associated with chloride secretion leading to diarrhea, inhibiting gastric acid secretion, and is inhibited by somatostatin
VIP (VIPoma causes diarrhea with no gastric acid secretion)
differentiate signs of 11 and 21-hydroxylase deficiency
11 - musculinization with HTN
21 - masculinization with hypotension
what causes 7-dehydrocholesterol --> cholecalciferol conversion
sunlight exposure
what determines the severity of mitral stenosis
S2 - OS gap
What would happen with ingestion of D-xylose during pancreatic insufficiency
nothing - does not depend on enzymes from pancreas for digestion
why do patients with CF sweat out more Na and Cl than normal
produce eccrine sweat glands
*can lead to dehydration
what enzymes degrade collagen and can cause plaque instability in an artery
metalloproteinases
what are paresthesias and muscle weakness associated with
hypokalemia and hypocalcemia
*due to mineralcorticoid secretion tumor in adrenal gland
**hypocalcemia due to increased pH causing more negative charges on albumin to bind calcium
an increase in this would lead to an increase in TBG (thyroid binding globulin) causing increased total T4 with normal levels of free T4
estrogen
*estrogen seems to increase production of every protein
associated with decreased FEV1/FVC, increased lung volume, and decreased diffusion capacity
emphysema
deficiency in what enzymes lead to increased androgens with normal blood pressure
aromatase
what can diffuse esophageal spasms mimic
unstable MI - need to rule out MI though during workup
what increases in the blood after reperfusion from thrombus occlusion
CK due to cell membrane damage
what two things can prevent renal calculi formation
1. fluid intake
2. citrate (binds to calcium)
systemic mastocytosis
abnormal proliferation of mast cells leading to increased histamine release, gastric hypersecretion, rash, pruritis, and flushing
how do you distinguish between partial vs. complete central DI
partial - >10% increase in urine osmolality after vasopression
complete - >50% increase in urine osmolality
where do uric acid stones form after chemotherapy
collecting duct due to decreased pH
what would a lactase challenge present with in person that is lactose intolerant
1. increased osmotic gap
2. increased breath hydrogen
3. decreased stool pH
how does SCC of the lung increased serum calcium
parathyroid hormone related peptide
what is used to distinguish causes of metabolic alkalosis
urine chloride
*normal suggests volume overload due to primary/secondary aldosteronism
**decreased suggest persistant vomiting or loop diuretic use
what are the serum levels of PTH, Ca, and phosphate in osteoporosis
normal
what are the serum levels of PTH, Ca, and Phosphate in Vit. D deficiency
increased PTH with decreased calcium and phosphate
paradoxical thromboembolism
blood clot enters the arterial circulation from the venous circulation through an ASD
systolic ejection murmur that increases upon standing
hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
early diastolic decrescendo murmur that decreases with amy nitrate
aortic regurge
this type of heart failure is associated with decreased compliance but with normal EF
diastolic heart failure
time frame to lose myocyte contractile function
within 60 seconds of onset of total ischemia
total body water associated with SIADH
relatively normal
what can exclude the diagnosis of asthma
negative metacholinergic test
what does squatting and valsalva do in patients with right-to-left shunts
increase SVR to increase left-to-right flow and increase pulmonary blood flow
what is subperiosteal thinning associated with
hyperparathyroidism
decrease in what hormone is associated with decreased gallbladder contractility
CCK (reason why gallstones develop in somatostatinoma)
differentiate CMV, HSV, and Candida esophagitis in AIDS patients
CMV - linear ulceration
HSV - grouped vessicles
Candida - white patches
what other test is used to diagnose CF if sweat chloride test is normal
nasal transepithelial potential difference due to increased Na absorption
what is the potassium levels in DKA
increased ECF potassium and decreased ICF potassium
where do osteoclasts originate from
hematopoetic cells - RANK-L and M-CSF play importatn roles in differentiation
what causes pulmonary hypertension in patients with heart failure
reactive vasoconstriction secondary to venous congestion
what is responsible for gynecomastia and spider angiomas in alcoholic cirrhosis
increased estrogen
GH causes IGF-1 to be released from where
liver
what enzyme is responsible for the formation of 11-DOC
21-hydroxylase
*11-hydroxylase forms corticosterone from 11-DOC