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81 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what results in a decreased end plate potential
myasthenia gravis due to decreased ability of ACh to bind and open post-synaptic cation channels
what are the TSH, T3, T4, and rT3 levels seen in exogenous T3 administration
increased T3
decreased TSH, T4, and rT3
what hormone is responsible for the gallbladder contraction
CCK
what types of muscles contain type 1 slow twitch muscle fibers
postural skeletal muscles: soleus and paraspinal
what substance is associated with calculating renal plasma flow
PAH
equation to calculate RBF using PAH
RBF = PAH/(1 - Hct)
where in the renal tubules is PAH the lowest concentration
in the Bowman's capsule
*because it is secreted into the tubules starting in the PCT
what regulates body iron content
hepcidin made in the liver acts on the epithelial intestinal cells
what causes increased expiratory flow rates in restrictive lung disease
increased radial traction on conducting airway
how do you calculate total filtration rate and net excretion rate
total filtration = (GFR)([plasma])
net excretion = (GFR)([plasma]) - tubular reabsorption
*GFR = inulin clearance
what tissue is associated with the highest oxygen extraction
myocardial tissue
*therefore coronary sinus would have the lowest O2 content
calculate FF
FF = GFR/RPF
*RPF = (1 - Hct)(RBF)
where in the renal tubules does ADH act
medullary collecting duct
what two ways can accentuate an S3 heart sound
1. lie down in left lateral decubitus position
2. fully exhale
what enzyme catalyzes iodide oxidation forming monoiodotyrosine and diiodotyrosine
thyroid peroxidase
what is the pH, HCO3, and H2PO4 in the urine when acid is being excreted
decreased pH
decreased HCO3
increased H2PO4
why do patients with COPD have increased cerebral blood flow
increased CO2, CO2 is a potent vasodilator
two equations to calculate cardiac output
CO = SV x HR
CO = O2 consumption/(A-V)O2 difference
what hormone is associated with decrease concentration of both H20 and urea in urine
vasopressin
at what PaCO2 levels does respiratory ensue during metabolic acidosis
PaCO2 > (1.5)(HCO3) + 8 +/- 2
differentiate RV, pulmonary artery, and LA pressures
RV - (diastolic - 4) (systolic - 25)
PA - (diastolic - 9) (systolic - 25)
LA - (diastolic -2 ) (systolic - 12)
what releases neurophysins into the circulation that are produced in the hypothalamus
posterior pituitary
differentiate what central and peripheral chemoreceptors respond to
central - PaCO2
peripheral - PaO2
what is found in stored blood that can chelate calcium and magnesium resulting in paresthesias
citrate
two most important substances for coronary blood flow
NO - large vessels
Adenosine - small vessels
what results in decreased cardiac output with the same venous return curve
myocardial infarction
what percent narrowing of a vessels results in decreased blood flow by 16
50%
2^4 = 16
what ion is associated with phase 0 of a pacemaker cells
calcium
what results in a resting membrane potential of -70 mV
high potassium conductance with some sodium conductance
what two hormones prevent lactogenesis in high concentrations
progesterone and estrogen
what are the PaCO2, PaO2, pH, and HCO3 levels in high altitute
decreased PaO2
decreased PaCO2
increased pH
decreased HCO3
what are skeletal muscles resistant to calcium channels blockers
do not require an influx of calcium via L-type calcium channels from extracellular environment. Use excitation-contraction coupling instead
why is there a chloride shift in venous blood
because more HCO3 is inside the RBC due to increased CO2 with carbonic anhydrase
where is the majority of resistance in the bronchial tree
in the medium-to-small airways, the resistance curve shifts up from the large airway then begins to fall until it reaches the terminal bronchioles
what three things are derived from POMC
ACTH
MSH
B-endorphin
what is the PTH, Ca, PO4, and calcitrol in chronic renal failure
increased PTH
decreased Ca
increased PO4
decreased Calcitrol
how does a large does of hCG help ovulation
stimulates the LH surge
what is a complication associated with thyroid surgery
primary hypoparathyroidism
what drugs increase the rate of insulin secretion and C-peptide levels
sulfonylrueas
what is unique about pulmonary vasculature
causes vasoconstriction during hypoxia
in what type of hyperaldosteronism is both renin and aldosterone elevated, examples
secondary hyperaldosteronism:
renovascular hypertension
renin-secreting tumor (juxtaglomerular cell tumor)
what determines ventricular contraction during atrial fibrillation
AV node, its refractory period suppresses aberrant SA node firing
what does nitroprusside due to left ventricle volume-pressure curve
decreases both afterload and preload causing both decreased volume and pressure
examples of substances with tubular fluid/plasma concentration ratio greater than 1
*In the PCT
PAH
creatinine
Inulin
Urea
examples of substances with tubular fluid/plasma concentration less than 1
*In the PCT
HCO3
amino acids
glucose
ATP-gated chloride channel
CFTR
what is the cardiac tissue conduction velocity in order from fastest to slowest
purkinje fibers
atrial muscle
ventricle muscle
AV node
elevation of what hormone confirms diagnosis of menopause
FSH
how are dust particles small than 2 um removed
alveolar macrophages
what does a chronic AV shunt do to CO and venous return
increases both CO and venous return
what does anaphylaxis do CO and venous return
decreases both CO and venous return
where are lipids digested and absorbed
digested in the duodenum
absorbed in the jejunum
what does left ventricular failure due to lung compliance
decreases due to accumulation of fluid
what two substances are increased during anaphylaxis
histamine
tryptase
what causes degranulation of mast cells
cross-linked of antigens to the membrane-bound IgE on mast cells
what nerves are associated with the carotid sinus and aortic arch respectively
carotid sinus - CN IX
aortic arch - CN X
where do the baroreceptors in the carotid and aorta terminate
both CN IX and X terminate in the solitary nucleus of the medulla
equation for capillary reabsorption of filtration
Q = (Pc - Pi) - (Oc - Oi)
regardless of the patient's hydration status, where does the majority of free water reabsorption occur in the kidneys
PCT passively
what does demyelination of an axon result in
decreased space constant resulting in decreased ability of an impulse to travel down an axon
what three things can be used to treat paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia
carotid message
valsalva
adenosine
what does a carotid message due in paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia
increases baroreceptor firing of parasympathetics to prolong AV node refractory period
**Usually sympathetics are constantly being fired until the baroreceptor is stimulated
what is the intrapleural pressure at FRC
-5 cm H20
physiology of mu receptors
G protein-linked that result in K efflux and hyperpolarization
how do you calculate total peripheral resistance in parallel
Total = 1/(1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3.....)
up to what level are pseudostatified columnar ciliated cells present
up to the terminal bronchioles, this clears majority of inhalants greater than 2 um
PaO2, PaCO2, and HCO3 seen in patient with pulmonary embolus
decreased PaO2, PaCO2, and slight decrease in HCO3
*hyperventilation is occuring
what causes an opening snap
stenotic mitral valve, this is heard when the mitral valve opens
cortisol is permissive in that it increases vascular and smooth muscle reactivity to catecholamines
**
what happens to GFR and FF in ureteral constriction
decreased both GFR and FF
what provide negative feedback to LH and FSH respectively
Testosterone - LH
Inhibin B - FSH
what part of the breathing is SVR the lowest in the pulmonary arteries
FRC
what activates trypsinogen to trypsin
duodenal enteropeptidases
what substance is associated with excretion > filtration
PAH
what substance is associated with filtration = excretion
Inulin
what substance is associated with 100% reabsorption until it reaches 300 mmol/L
glucose
differentiate reabsorption percentage of sodium and BUN
99% of sodium is reabsorbed
40-50% of BUN is rebasorbed
when is K ion conduction highest
during repolarization
how does digoxin decrease AV conduction
increases parasympathetic tone
what ensures coordination contraction of all myofibrils in skeletal muscle
T-tubules - invagination of the sarcomlemma
what is the most important factor for coronary blood flow
duration of diastole