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538 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
reduced stratum granulosum
neutrophils forming microabscesses
hyperparakeratosis above basal layer
psoriasis
dilated cardiomyopathy leads to what dyfunction
decreased ventricular contraction
retrosternal pain radiating to the back
dissecting aortic aneurysm
causes dissecting aortic anneurysm
intimal tear
most common dystonias
1. spasmodic torticolis
2. blephoraspasm
3. writer's cramp
typical sign of irreversible cell injury
mitochondrial vacuolization - mitochondria permanently cannot form ATP
most common cause of death in patients with MI, pre-hospital vs. in-hospital
pre-hospital - cardiac arrhythmia
in-hospital - ventricular failure
superior sulcus tumor (apex of lung) associated with what
ipsilateral Horner's syndrome
atrophy of hand muscles
pain in dermatomes C8-T2
round density in the lower lobe of lung with air-fluid level
pulmonary abscess
what immune actions of macrophages and neutrophils result in pulmonary abscess formation
release of lysosomal content from macrophages and neutrophils
what is needed to diagnose minimal change disease
electron microscopy to see pathognomonic foot processes
deficiency in this is diagnostic of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
CD 55 and CD59
what causes hemoglobinuria in person with PNH
complement activation of RBC due to CD 55 and 59 deficiency to inactivate complement
transmural inflammation with fibrinoid necrosis is most characteristic of which vasculitis
polyarteritis nodosa
this vasculitis is associated with fever, weight loss, melena, and associated with HBV in 10-30% of cases
polyarteritis nodosa
atrophied kidney associated with secondary HTN
unilateral renal artery stenosis
patient taking warfarin presents with hypercoagulable state with thrombotic occlusion of skin is associated with what
protein C deficiency
mechanism of liver injury in HBV
CD8 T cell response to viral antigens on hepatocytes
modified resistance to activated protein C results in predisposition to DVT and PE
Factor V Leiden
gestation diabetes result in what in the newborn
transient hypoglycemia because newborn was used to increased maternal glucose
most common cause of death in DM
MI
why is hyperlipidemia associated with nephrotic syndrome
because the liver increases lipoprotein synthesis to compensate for decreased albumin production
thyroid cancer associated with concentrically calcified structures (psommoma bodies) and ground glass epithelial cells
papillary carcinoma - most common
most common cause of acquired chorea in childhood
sydenhem chorea associated with acute rheumatic fever
what is the child at risk of developing with acquired chorea from rheumatic fever
valvular heart disease
what precedes acquired chorea in child
sore throat infection with strep pyogenes
HIV positive patient presents with temporal lobe mass that has EBV present
primary CNS lymphoma
rapid correction of hyponatremia
central pontine myelinolysis - osmotic demyelination of axons
characteristics of a pancreatic pseudocyst seen in acute pancreatitis
not lined by epithelium like a true cyst, but by granulation tissue and fibrosis
leads to squamous metaplasia of pancreatic ducts and bronchioles in patient with CF
Decreased Vit. A
what two things are associated with pure red cell aplasia
thymoma
parvovirus B19
meningitis associated with normal glucose, increased protein, and lymphocyte predominance
viral meningitis
irreversible ischemic injury to brain tissue result in
liquefactive necrosis
Vit. E deficient in CF patients are associated with what
hemolytic anemia
neurologic problems
*both secondary to increased membrane susceptibility to oxidative stress
patients with CF have malabsorption of what
fats and fat-soluble vitamins (A,D,E, and K)
what is used to detect disease recurrence of colon cancer
carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)
what will prolong onset of symptoms of hemochromatosis in female sibling compared to male
iron loss in menstrual flow
results in excess 5-HT or 5-HIAA production causing hypotension and diarrhea
carcinoid syndrome
tumor in cerebellum of child with rosenthal fibers and granular eosinophilic bodies
pilocytic astrocytoma
seen in heavy smokers with hypersenstivity to tobacco extract injection
thromboangiitis obliterans
associated with cherry red macula and painless sudden permanent blindness
central retinal artery occlusion
two vasculitis diseases associated with granulomatous inflammation of the media of the artery
giant cell arteritis - temporal artery
takayasu - aortic arch
patients presents with DM, anemia, and necrolytic migratory erythema in the groin area
glucagonoma
t(9:22) with BCR-ABL
chronic myelogenous leukemia
lesion of caudate nucleus
Huntington disease
mechanism of alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis
associated with decreased free fatty acid oxidation secondary to excess NADH
child presents with lower extremity palpable purpura, abdominal pain, joint pain, and hematuria
Henoch-Schonlein Purpura
what precedes Henoch-Schonlein purpura
upper respiratory infection leads to IgA-mediated hypersensitivity vasculitis
decreased platelet levels seen in patient with ecchymoses, petechiae, and mucosal bleeding in which TTP/HUS and splenomegaly are ruled out
immune (idiopathic) thrombocytopenic purpura
platelet count seen in patient with von Willibrand disease
normal
patients presents with hemarthroses are associated with what abnormal test
prolonged PTT
*characteristic of hemophilia A and B
typical site of infection by hematogenous osteomyelitis
metaphysis of long bone
non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis is associated with what
hypercoagulable state from cancer - adenocarcinoma of pancreas or lung
what two thombotic disorders are associated with disseminated cancers
1. non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis
2. trousseau's syndrome (migratory thrombophletitis)
perianal fistula is associated with what
Crohn's disease
what causes mallory-weiss tears
increased intra-abdominal pressure from caused by severe retching, coughing, or vomiting secondary to alcohol use
estrogen secreting ovarian tumor that causes endometrial hyperplasia and abnormal uterine bleeding
granulosa cell tumor
perfusion defect not matched by a ventilation defect
PE
two key growth factors for angiogenesis
VEGF
FGF
what indirectly promotes angiogenesis by increasing VEGF
IL-1 and INF-y
flattened, atrophied mucosal villi with malabsorption
celiac disease
symmetrical enlargement of the ventricles characteristic of what
communicating hydrocephalus - defect in arachnoid granulations
hypochromic, microcytic anemia most commonly due to what
iron deficiency - look for blood loss
*Especially in the GI tract!!!
painful swelling of the hands and feet are associated with what
sickle cell anemia
which renal problem is Crohn's disease associated with
oxalate kidney stones - due to decreased excretion of calcium-oxalate in the intestinal tract
mechanism of increased oxalate reabsorption in Crohn's disease
decreased bile salt reabsorption and therefore increased lipids in intestinal lumen. leads to increased lipids binding to calcium and therefore less calcium to bind oxalate to be excreted as complex
familial retinoblastoma associated with increased risk of what other malignancy
osteosarcoma
associated with decreased colon polyp formation
COX-2 blockers
*therefore COX-2 enzyme must promote adenoma development
associated with selective proteinuria (albumin) secondary to loss of glomerular polyanion
minimal change disease
hepatocellular cytoplasm with eosinphilic apperance (ground glass)
HBV infection
pancytopenia and low retic count seen in without splenomegaly
aplastic anemia - bone marrow replaced by fat and fibrous strand
microsomal monooxygenase
cytochome P450
converts pro-carcinogens to active metabolites
cytochrome P450
tumor associated with exposure to vinyl chloride and expresses CD31
hepatic angiosarcoma
*CD31 is endothelial marker
caused by a defect in connective tissue with predisposition to myxomatous degeneration
Mitral Valve Prolapse
Red neuron
shows irreversible injury: shrunken cell body, eosinophilic cytoplasm, loss of Nissl substance, and pyknosis of nucleus
associated with pain with ocular movement and intention tremor
Multiple Sclerosis
what type of necrosis is seen in an MI
coagulative necrosis
associated with fibrinoid necrosis
vasulitis
associated with caseous necrosis
TB, fungal infection
associated with enzymatic fat necrosis
release of pancreatic lipase on adipose tissue
causes of acute pancreatitis (3)
gallstones
alcohol
hypertriglyceridemia
R-sided endocardial fibrosis that has increased plasma 5-HT or urine 5-HIAA
carcinoid syndrome
associated with panacinar emphysema in the lower lobes
a1-antitrypsin deficiency
patients presents with increased Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and pruritis
primary biliary cirrhosis
*autoimmune destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts
associated with malar facial rash, photosensitivity, arthralgias, proteinuria, and percarditis
SLE
S-100 positive intracranial mass indicates what
Schwannoma
patients presents with urinary incontinence, ataxic gait, dementia and has symmetric dilation of the ventricles
normal pressure hydrocephalus
what causes hypercalcemia in sarcoidosis
activated macrophages increasing the extrarenal formation of 1,25-OH Vit. D
holoprosencephaly is associated with what type of birth defect
malformation
what causes a positive Lepromin skin test
strong CD4 T-cell mediated immune response
when should a1-antritrypsin deficiency be suspected
early onset COPD or in non-smoker
neonatal hepatitis with cholestasis
what can result in renal artery stenosis in young woman
fibromuscular dysplasia
female patient presents with dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia (pain with sex), and infertility
endometriosis
where are endometrial glands most commonly found outside the uterus in patient with endometriosis
ovaries
RBC fragments and helmet cells result from what
mechanical trauma
what drug increases serum calcium and suppresses PTH secretion
hydrochlorothiazide
homeless alcoholic patients presents with right lobe air-fluid level lesion with foul smelling sputum
aspiration pneumonia secondary to oropharyngeal contents
young patients presents with hemolytic anemia, jaundice, and splenomegaly with positive osmotic fragility test
hereditary spherocytosis
patients presents with impaired balance, dysarthria, tremor, and elevated transaminases
Wilson's disease
what can cause cerebellar degeneration
paraneoplastic syndrome resulting from lung, breast, or ovary cancer - autoimmune destruction from antibodies
thickening and hyperpigmentation of skin in folds of axilla is associated with what two conditions
insulin resistance
GI malignancy
calcium-laden gallbaldder can eventually lead to what
gallbladder carcinoma
what can an EBV infection lead to in a patient that is HIV positive
lead to CNS or GI lymphoma due to increased B-cell proliferation and increased the risk of c-Myc translocation t(8:14)
patients presents with tinnitus, vertigo, and sensorineural hearing loss. what is the mechanism
Menier's disease - increased endolymph volume
acute demeylinating ascending peripheral neuropathy is usually preceded by what
febrile illness caused by campylobacter that causes either respiratory infection or GI infection
what problem in the brain is associated with PCKD
berry anneurysm
young african american female presents with erythemia nodosum, arthralgias, and increased ACE levels
sarcoidosis - noncaseating granulomas found everywhere
most common cause of xanthomas
LDL receptor abnormality
which part of the brain has the greatest degree of atrophy in Alzheimer's
hippocampus
what is BRAF V600E associated with
melanoma
what two condition is pulsus paradoxus associated with
cardiac tamponade
asthma
cyanosis restricted to the lower body in a child is suggestive of what
PDA
cyanosis present throughout the whole body presents in a child is suggestive of what
VSD or ASD
what deposit is found in gout
monosodium urate
what lab values are associated with schistocytosis
decreased haptoglobin
increased LDL and bilirubin
weight loss is found in young adult that pees a lot, had a recent viral infection
Type 1 DM
a low fiber diet can result in what in the anus
anal fissure in the posterior midline distal to the dentate line
what should be suspected in patient with long bone fracture with acute onset neurologic abnormalities, hypoxemia, and petechial rash
fat embolism
what mutation is seen in most spradic and familial polyposis syndrome
APC mutation
child presenting with hematuria 3 weeks after skin infection has what immunoflurescent staining
C3 in his glomerulus
female patient presents with obesity, hyperandrogenism, oligomenorrhea, and infertility
polycystic ovarian syndrome
what is the treatment for polycystic ovarian syndrome
estrogen receptor modulator to decrease negative feedback from the elevated estrogen and increase FSH and LH release
microvesicular steatosis
Reye syndrome
associated with decreased choline acetyltransferase in the nucleus basalis
Alzheimers
what is the first indication of diabetic nephropathy
microalbuminuria
what causes acute renal allograft rejection
cell-mediated immune response
what is given to a patient with an acute allograft rejection
anti-CD3 antibodies to inhibit T cell response
associated with loss of neurons in the anterior horns and demyelination of lateral CST
ALS
why can testicular tumors present with elevated T4 and T3
can result in increased hCG which is structurally similar to TSH
what causes endometrial cells to undergo apoptosis
withdrawal of progesterone - RU-486
what do lacunar infarcts result in
pure motor or sensory strokes
patient presents with decreased FVC and increased FEV1/FVC with progressive dyspnea. what can this condition eventually lead to
honeycomb lung from pulmonary fibrosis
what can an infection in an HLA-B27 patient result in
reactive arthritis
impairment of platelet function and coagulation pathway
vWF deficiency
lab results in patients with vWF deficiency
prolonged bleeding time
prolonged PTT
decreased platelet aggregation in response to ristocetin
mid-chest pleuritic pain that decreases upon sitting and increases on leaning forward
acute pericarditis
what do patients with adult-type coarctation of the aorta commonly die of
HTN-associated diseases: dissecting aortic aneurysm, berry aneurysm rupture
sudden decompensation of chronic cirrhosis associated with increased aFP
hepatocellular carcinoma
patient presents with lifelong history of gingival bleeding, epistaxis, mucosal bleeding, menorrhagea
vWF deficiency
what does vWF bind to
platelet and collagen on endothelial tissue
patients presents with congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens and recurrent respiratory infections
CF
this colon cancer is associated with defective DNA mismatch repair
hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer (NOT APC mutation which is a tumor suppressor)
what disease is associated with small cardiac valvular vegetations on either side of the valve
SLE
young african american female presents with dry cough, pulmonary infiltrates, hilar lymphadenopathy
sarcoidosis with non-caseating granulomas
inflamed and enlarged gallbladder in the absence of of gallstones
acute acalculus cholecystitis
virchow's triad
3 things associated with DVT:
endothelial injury
venous stasis
hypercoagulable state
what is cell necrosis and cell injury followed by usually, typically found on cardiac valves
dystrophic calcifications
dystrophic calcification that develops lamellated out layer is known as what
psommoma body
what do the adrenal glands look like in iatrogenic glucocorticoid use
bilateral cortical atrophy
differentiate how S. aureus and enteric bacteria cause hepatic abscesses
S. aureus - hematogenous seeding
enteric bacteria - ascension from portal tract
3 hallmark findings in ulcerative colitis
1. rectum is always involved
2. inflammation is limited to mucosa and submucosa
3. mucosal damage is continuous
BCL2 overexpression due to t(14:18) translocation
follicular lymphoma
what two things is N-MYC proto-oncogene common in
neuroblastoma
SCC of lung
hallmark finding in MS
demyelination (axon denudation)
autosomal dominant mutation that is associated with sarcomas, tumor of the breast, and adrenal cortex
p53 mutation
what is congenital long QT syndrome associated with
sensorineural deafness
most common carcinoma of the lung, associated with women and non-smokers, located in the periphery
adenocarcinoma of the lung
blue-violet skin plaques on the extremities and mucous membranes of HIV positive patients
Kaposi's sarcoma
sex cord stromal tumors that secrete estrogen
granulosa cell tumors
what would be increased in the blood of a patient with anemia and posterior cord problems
methylmalonic acid
most common benign liver tumor
carvernous hemangioma
what type of lung tumor would express neurosecretory granules in the cyptoplasm
SCC tumor of lung
what causes the green discoloration of pus or sputum
meyloperoxidase from neutrophils - MPO is heme containing
findings in patient with DIC
1. increased PT and PTT
2. thrombocytopenia
3. decreased fibrinogen
4. increased D-dimer
5. decreased factors V and VIII
what is associated with retained dead fetus for more than 6 weeks
DIC
before HBV infection causes increased AST and ALT, what does it present like
serum sickness-like - malaise, fever, skin rash, pruritis, lymphadenopathy, join pain
what causes urinary incontinence in normal pressure hydrocephalus
stretching of descending cortical fibers
hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia causing epistaxis, GI bleeding, and hematuria
osler-weber-rendu syndrome
what should all patients with a history of nephrolithiasis be advised to do
consume ample fluids
associated with repeated splenic infarctions that results in atrophy and fibrosis
sickle cell disease
what patients are predisposed to infections with encapsulated organisms
asplenic - remember sickle cell disease
what deficiency is seen in patients with chronic hemolytic anemia
folic acid deficiency with macrocytic anemia
what causes retinpathy of prematurity
use of concentrated oxygen in infant with respiratory distress syndrome
patients presents with sudden onset blindness in one eye that resolved spontaneously along with jaw pain
temporal arteritis
what is elevated in patients with temporal arteritis
ESR
why do reticulocytes contain bluish cytoplasm
precipitates of residual ribosomal RNA
what causes rhomboid-shaped cytstals in patients knees
calcium pryophosphate seen in psueogout
tumor the ovary resulting from metastasis of the gastric carcinoma
krukenburg tumor
markers for precursor B cell ALL
TdT, CD10, CD19
markers for precursor T cell ALL
TdT, CD1
kid presents with failure to thrive with greasy stool, however his intestine biopsy was normal
abetalipoproteinemia
marked menstrual cycle variability seen in the first 5-7 years or last 10 years of menstrual cycle
anovulation
most common outcome in HBV-infected adult
acute hepatitis with complete remission
what do most patients with ATN experience
re-epithelialization with regain in full renal function
what is the genetics of G6PD
x-linked recessive
what is the genetics of hereditary spherocytosis
autosomal dominanat
associated with necrosis and hemorrhage in the temporal lobe
glioblastoma multiforme
findings in tertiary syphilis
vasa vasorum endarteritis
aortic regurge
mediastinal widening
thoracic aortic aneurysm
FTA-ABS positive
what is associated with being FTA-Abs positive
syphilis
what leads to central diabetes insipidus
damage to hypothalamic nuclei
what distinguishes central DI from nephrogenic
administration of ADH - fixes problem in central but not nephrogenic
patient presents with recurrent abdominal pain, hepatosplenomegaly, and pancreatic calcifications; along with megaloblastic anemia and folate deficiency
chronic pancreatitis resulting from chronic alcoholism
most likely cause of apical cavitary lesions with hemoptysis
reactivation TB in immunosuppressed patient
what three things mediate the inflammatory response and stimulate hepatic secretion of fibrinogen resulting in increased ESR
IL-1
IL-6
TNF-a
what is associated with the prognosis of colorectal adenocarcinoma
stage, not the grade
autoantibodies against desmosomal proteins resulting in flaccid blisters, especially in the mouth
pemphigus vulgaris
autoantibodies against hemidesmosomal proteins resulting in tense blisters
bullous pemphigoid
associated with multiple myeloma due to monoclonal Ig light chains
amyloidosis
specific for gastrinoma, associated with abdominal pain and diarrhea
jejunal ulcers
metastasis to lung from which site is associated with increased HCT
clear cell carcinoma of the kidney
*lung is most common site of metastasis
most common pituitary adenoma resulting in bitemporal hemianopsia
prolactinoma
what is HbA2 associated with
B-thalassemia trait and intermedia because B globulin chain underproduction causes decreased synthesis of HbA
mutations of RET proto-oncogene are strongly associated with what
medullary carcinoma of the thryoid - MEN 2 syndrome
patient presents with atopic dermatitis (eczema), pruritis, and weeping papules in response to environmental antigens; what two other things are commonly associated
allergic rhinitis
asthma
IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase and IgA endomysial antibodies
celiac disease
what causes small intestinal mucosa that are enlarged containing foamy macrophages and PAS positive granules
tropheryma whippelii
causes factor V resistance to inactivation by activated protein C
Factor V Leiden
what is associated with endocardial cushion defect in interatrial septum
down syndrome
HTN with decreased renin is suggestive of what
primary hyperaldosteronism
found in moldy grain and causes G-T tranversion in codon of p53 resulting in hepatocellular carcinoma
aflotoxin
associated with middle-aged white female with pruritis, fatigue, pale stools, and xanthelasma
primary biliary cirrhosis
deficiency in what vitamin resembles the clinical presentation of Friedrich's ataxia
severe vitamin E deficiency
two things associated with degeneration of spinocerebellar tracts, dorsal column, peripheral nerves, and dysarthria
friedrich's ataxia
vitamin E deficiency
associated with male infertility, situs inversus, recurrent sinusitis, and bronchiectasis
primary ciliary dyskinesia
crohn's can affect the terminal ileum bile absorption and lead to development of what
gallstones
adults coarctation of aorta triad
1. upper body HTN
2. diminished lower body pulses
3. enlarged intercostal artery collaterals
cause of charcot-brouchard pseudoaneurysm that penetrates basal ganglia and thalamus
HTN
what are black pigmented gallstones associated with
chronic hemolysis- sickle cell, B-thalassemia, spherocytosis
recurrent nephrolithasis in young patient
think inborn error of metabolism - cystinuria from defect in PCT. sodium cyanide-nitroprusside test detect sulfhydryl group in cysteine
sodium cyanide-nitroprusside test
detect sulfhydryl group in cyteine molecule in patient with cystinuria
major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients 4-12 days after SAH
vasospasm
associated with elevated 17-hydroxyprogesterone and androgens and ACTH, with decreased cortisol
21B-hydroxylase deficiency
do children recover better than adults from post-strep glomerulonephritis
Yes, age is important prognositc indicator
what other disease are associated with carpal tunnel syndrome
hypothyroidism
DM
RA
dialysis-associated amyloidosis
anti-GBM antibodies against alpha3-chain of collagen type IV
goodpasture syndrome: glomerulonephritis with hemoptysis
two cancers EBV is associated with
Burkitt's lymphoma
nasopharyngeal carcinoma
are fibroblasts found in the brain
No, no collagen deposition
breast carcinoma associated with solid sheets of pleomorphic, high-grade cells with central necrosis
comedocarcinoma (ductal cell carcinoma in-situ)
what does chronic rejection of the lung via immune reaction result in
bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome causing dyspnea and wheezing
hepatocellular carcinoma is strongly suggestive of what infection
HBV - due to integration of viral DNA into host genome
fatty streaks in children do not predict the occurrence or location of atheromatous plaques later in life
**
do superficial erosion penetrate the muscularis mucosa
No, they stay the mucosa. The muscular mucosa is the layer between the mucosa and the submucosa
brain atrophy along with ventricular enlargement, no increase in CSF pressure
hydrocephalus ex vacuo
what disease is digital clubbing associated with
prolonged hypoxia: large-cell carcinoma of the lung, TB, CF, bronchiectasis
what percentage of the Hb is HbS in patient with sickle cell trait
35-40%
what are patients with sickle trait protected from
sickle cell crisis
aplastic crisis
plasmodium falciprum
associated with distal small bowel obstruction in neonate from meconium (meconium ileus)
CF
what causes the changes in adenocarcinoma of the colon from normal epithelial - early adenoma - late adenoma - adenocarcinoma
normal epithelial - early adenoma (APC gene)
early adenoma - late adenoma (K-ras)
late adenoma - adenocarcinoma (p53)
what is associated with diffuse ballooning degeneration, mononuclear cell infiltrates, and council bodies (apoptotic cells)
acute viral hepatitis
apoplexy
hemorrhage into preexisting pituitary adenoma resulting in severe headache and CN palsies
what is a severe consequence of apoplexy
cardiovascular collapse due to adrenocortical deficiency
nephrotic syndrome with thicken glomerular BM with spike appearance
membranous glomerulopathy
69XXX or 69XXY presenting with vaginal bleeding and lower abdominal pain
partial mole
associated with increased MCHC, LDH (lactate dehydrogenase), reticulocytosis, and decreased hepatoglobin
hereditary spherocytosis
associated with increased MCHC
hereditary spherocytosis
what can a small percentage of actinic keratosis progress into
invasive squamous cell carcinoma
skin lesions associated with basal cell layer atypia, hyperkeratosis, and parakaratosis
actinic keratosis
what is the primary histologic finding in patients with eczematous dermatitis
sponiosis
epidermal accumulation of edematous fluid in the intracellular space seen in eczematous dermatitis
spongiosis
erythematous, papulovesicular, weeping, ecrusted lesions associated with new contact items
eczematous dermatitis
associated with Auer rods and giant nucleated blasts that are much larger than RBCs
AML
must smaller, mature cells that also have Auer rods present
CML
which skin lesion disease is associated with deforming joint disease
psoriasis
what are the 4 F's associated with cholelithiasis
Fat
Fertile
Female
Forty
what is the mechanism of pregnant/oral contraceptive use induced cholilithiasis
estrogen induced cholesterol hypersecretion with pregesterone induced gallbladder hypomotility
most important prognostic indicator for malignant melnoma
vertical growth
what skin lesion is associated with celiac disease
dermatitis herpetiformis
IgA deposits in tips of dermal papillae
sudden onset of flapping of one arm associated with HTN
hemiballismus with hemorrhage of the subthalamic nucleus
most likely cause of fatigue and new onset cardiac murmur in a young adult
bacterial endocarditis
what can result from bacterial endocarditis due to circulating immune complexes
glomerulonephritis
LM changes after MI:
0-4 hours
4-12 hours
12-24 hours
1-5 days
10-14 days
2 wks - 2 mo
0-4 hours - minimal change
4-12 hours - edema and hemorrhage
12-24 hours - contraction band necrosis
1-5 days - coagulation necrosis and neutrophilic infiltrate
5-10 days - macrophage phagocytosis
10-14 days - granulation tissue and neovascularization
2 wks - 2 mo - scar formation
patient presents with chest pain that is not relieved by aspirin or nitroglycerin, dyspnea, diaphoresis, nauesea, ST elevation and Q-wave formation a few hours later
acute transmural infarction due to ruptured atherosclerotic plaque with fully obstructed lumen
what is associated with ST elevation and subsequent Q-wave formation
fully obstructed thrombus
uniformly enalarged uterus with normal appearing endometrial tissue, menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea
adenomyosis
what is specific for left-sided heart failure
orthopnea
what is present in the crescent formation of RPGN
glomerular parietal cells
monocytes/macrophages
fibrin
this virus integrates its DNA into the host genoma and therefore increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma
HBV
what causes amenorrhea in anorexia nervosa
decreased pulsitile secretion of GnRH from the hypothalamus
associated with increased replicative potential
K-RAS
neurons associated with round, enlarged nuclei dispersed to the periphery, along with dispersed Nissl bodies
axonal reaction due to severing of axon
what causes the noncaseating granulomas in Crohn's disease
increased Th1 activity
*ulcerative colitis is associated with Th2 activity
patients need thyroidectomy and has flesh-colored nodules on lips and tongue
MEN 2B
what is needed to decrease risk of cholesterol precipitation and therefore gallstones
decreased cholesterol
increased bile acids
increased phosphatidylcholine - makes cholesterol soluble
PT, aPTT, platelet count and bleeding time seen in: hemophilia, vWBF deficiency, uremia, heparin, and coumadin
hemophilia - increases only aPTT
vWBF - increases only BT (could affect PTT via Factor VIII)
uremia - increases only BT
heparin - increases aPTT
coumadin - increases both PT and aPTT
what receptor is deficient if there is a family history of early-onset of accelerated atherosclerosis and CAD
LDL receptor mutations in the liver
two specific signs of Grave's disease
pretibial myxedema (infiltrative dermopathy)
exophthalmous
what do Auer rods stain positive for
myeloperoxidase
stains positive for tartrate resistant acid phosphatase
hairy cell leukemia
marker of immature lymphocytes of both B and T cell origin in ALL
TdT
two types of gastric adenocarcinoma
signet-ring - diffuse involvement with abundant mucin droplets
intestinal-type - nodular, polypoid masses in one location
patient presents with scleroderma/CREST, what pulmonary changes can be seen
pulmonary HTN with louder S2 and signs of RHF
associated with erythryocyte basophilic stippling and microcytic hypochromic anemia
lead poisoning
characteristic triad of fat embolism syndrome
1. respiratory distress
2. neurologic impairment (confusion)
3. upper body petechial rash due to thrombocytopenia
what stains fat black
osmium tetroxide
what is used for hydroxylation of proline and lysine residues in pro-collagen
Vitamin C
CREST syndrome
calcinosis
raynaud's
esophageal dysfunction
sclerodactyly
telangiectasia
*pulmonary HTN is seen in 1/3 of cases
necrotizing granulomas on the skin, mucosa, subcutaneos tissue associated with tertiary syphilis
gummas
three things seen in tertiary syphilis
neurosyphilis (posterior column)
CV involvement (aorta)
gummas
neonatal jaundice associated with increased total bilirubin, intrahepatic bile ductule proliferation, and portal tract edema and fibrosis
biliary atresia
screening test for malabsorption
Sudan III stains stool for fat
major prognostic determinator in bladder cancer
tumor penetration of the bladder wall
CA-125 tumor maker is present in elderly female with adnexal mass
ovarian malignancy
what does the schilling test help distinguish between as causes for B12 deficiency
dietary deficiency vs. malabsorption (celiac and tapeworm)
which form of B12 deficiency would a schilling test result in increased or nor change in B12 found in urine after the test
no change - malabsorption
increase - dietary deficiency
hematoma associated with rupture of cortical bridging veins
subdural hematoma
these reduce the risk of non-hereditary ovarian and endometrial cancers
oral contraceptives
two main cerebellar tumors in childhood
distinguish
pilocystic astrocytoma - has both cystic and solid component on MRI
medulloblastoma - only solid component seen on MRI
most common cerebellar tumor in childhood
pilocystic astrocytoma
where do renal cell carcinomas arise from
epithelial cells of the PCT
this tumor suppressor protein can be activated/decativated via phosphorylation and prevents damaged cells from proceeding past the G1 to S checkpoint
Rb protein
patients presents with hypercalcemia and bitemporal hemionopsia. what else should be looked for in this patient
pacreatic tumor - MEN 1
enzyme associated with brown-pigmented gallstones
B-glucuronidase - released by injured hepatocytes and bacteria resulting in increased UCB
what causes strictures and fistulas in Crohn's disease
transmural inflammation
what can result in fetal hypoglycemia with islet cell hyperplasia
increased maternal blood glucose
what is thought to result in fetal macrosomia
hyperinsulinemia due to islet cell hyperplasia resulting from increased maternal blood glucose
what is the most suggestive finding in pyelonephritis
WBC casts
what type of patient presents with R-sided endocarditis resulting from S. aureus
IV drug user
which lab finding is still normal in patient with ARDS: pulmonary capilary permeability, lung compliance, V/Q mismatch, PCWP
PCWP
these enzymes are Zn-containing enzymes that degrade ECM and participate in normal tissue remodeling and tumor invasion
metalloproteinases
hyperphosphorylation of Rb protein results in what
inactivation - releases E2F transcription factor and allows cell to go from G1 - S unchecked
what causes hyperphosphorylation of Rb protein
cyclin-dependent kinase - 4
cell cycle inhibitor in which malignant tissues contain low levels
p27
what histologic finding is characteristic of meningiomas
psommoma bodies
small, hemorrhagic macules on soles of feet and palms of patients (janeway lesions) seen in bacterial endocarditis result from what
septic microemboli
mechanism of esophageal hypomotility in CREST scleroderma
LES atrophy and fibrous replacement of muscles
esophageal hypomotility seen in CREST syndrome is associated with increased risk of what
Barrett's esophagus and adenocarcinoma
first cells susceptible to global cerebral ischemia
pyramidal cells of the hippocampus
*purkinje cells of cerebellum next most
pneumobilia is suggestive diagnosis of what
gallstone ileus
diabetic patients presents with ptosis, down and outward gaze of eye, and decreased accomodation. mechanism
CN III damage via ischemia - parasympathetic fibers are still intact
can result in both Horner's syndrome and compression of brachial plexus
pancoast tumor of lung
benign congenital disorder with cystic dilations of medullary collecting ducts
medullary sponge kidney
common complication associated with medullary sponge kidney
kidney stones
triad of pre-eclampsia
HTN
proteinuria
edema
Eclampsia
pre-eclampsia with seizures
HELLP syndrome
hemolytic anemia
Elevated LFTs
low platelets
what can be a precursor to HELLP syndrome
Pre-eclampsia
complication associated with ulcerative colitis presenting with abdominal pain, fever, diarrhea, signs of shock (decreased BP and increased HR)
toxic megacolon
pitting edema in subcutaneous tissue of breast with brawny induration, mechanism
Peau d'orange
plugging of dermal lymphatics
associated with bronchiolitis obliterans: lymphocytic inflammation, necrosis, fibrosis resulting in occlusion of lumen
chronic rejection of lung
antibody targeted against neutrophil proteinase 3
C-ANCA
associated with necrotizing vasculitis of upper and lower respiratory tract (nasal ulcers and hemotysis) and glomerulonephritis
Wegener's granulomatosis
Ghon complex
lower lobe lung lesion and ipsilateral hilar adenopathy
response for the thrombotic complications of nephrotic syndrome
loss of AT III
what causes cardiocyte swelling in cardiac ischemia
decreased ATP for Na/K pump resulting in calcium influx
associated with cyanotic toe and renal failure following invasive vascular procedure
characteristic of atheroembolic disease of renal arteries
associated with anti-centromere antibodies
CREST syndrome (limited scleroderma)
associated with anti-Scl-70 (topoisomerase I) antibodies
systemic scleroderma
what is disrupted in osteogenesis imperfecta
type I collagen, component of bone matrix giving bone its flexibility
associated with blue sclera
osteogenesis imperfecta
product of lipid peroxidation and accumulates in aging cells
lipofuscin
common seen in the heart and liver of aging patients - intracytoplasmic granules that are yellowish-brown
lipofuscin
differentiate congestion, red hepatization and gray hepatization of lobar pneumonia
1. congestion (24 hrs.) - red, heavy, boggy with exudate containing bacteria
2. red hepatization (2-3 days) - red, firm, lobe with neutrophil and fibrin in exudate
3. gray hepatizatio (4-6 days) - grey-brown (pale) firm lobe, RBCs disintigrate
what two parts of the kidney are affected by renal ischemia
PCT
thick ascending limb
what lung carcinoma is inoperabel
small cell carcinoma
associated with eggshell calcifications of hilar nodes and birefringent particles surrounded by fibrous tissue in upper lobes
silicosis
differentiate beginning pathogenesis in abdominal aortic aneurysm vs. descending thoracic aneurysm
AAA - intimal streak leading to atherosclerosis
DTA - intimal tear leading to dissection
what happens to TB organism in primary tuberculosis
engulfed by macrophages and proliferate intracelluarly
syndrome associated with flushing, wheezing, diarrhea, RH valvular disease
carcinoid syndrome
when does carcinoid syndrome develop
when metastasizes to the liver - before metastases the liver removes 5-HT
these cells move to area of ischemic infarct in brain and engulf dead cells, they can now be stained by lipid stain
macrophages
mechanism for iron overload in hemochromatosis
increased intestinal absorption
anemia seen in women of child bearing age will most likely have what serum levels: ferritin, TIBC, MCV
decreased ferritin
increased TIBC
decreased MCV
older person with myopia their whole life now doesn't need glasses anymore to see
presbyopia
associated with sclerosis of lens in elderly people
presbyopia
differences in ulcerative colitis -associated carcinomas
more likely arise from non-polypoid lesion
multifocal
develop early p53 and late APC
higher histological grade
renal changes seen in malignant hypertension
onion-like concentric thickening of arteriole walls
halothane toxicity seen in patients post-op is associated with what disorder
fulminant hepatitis
- increased LFTs, PT, eosinophilia
addition of what will help form clots in patients with hemophilia
thrombin
estrogen, LH, and FSH levels seen in patient with anorexia
decreased all
drug that release vWF and Factor VIII from endothelium, used to treat hemophilia A
desmopressin
cause for pancytopenia is patients with SLE
type II hypersentitivty against blood cells (RBC, WBCs, platelets)
cause of localized amyloidosis in:
cardiac atria, thyroid, pancreatic islet, cerebrum, pituitary
atria - ANP
thryoid - calcitonin
pancreatic islet - amylin
cerebrum - B-amyloid
pituitary - prolactin
skin rash associated with malabsorption
dermatitis herpetiformis (celiac)
C3 and C4 levels in patient with post-strep glomerulonephritis
decreased C3
normal C4
mutation in what is associated with congenital long QT syndrome
potassium channel
cause of hypoventilation in patients with ankylosing spondylitis
chest pain due to inflammation of CV and CS junctions
reversible change in epithelial cells
dysplasia
when are dysplastic epithelial cells no long reversible
when they invade past BM
fixed atherosclerotic plaque obstruction > 75% of lumen in coronary artery
stable angina
progostic indicators for alcholic liver injury
PT
albumin
two diseases associated with oligodendrocyte depletion
MS
PML
childhood tumor associated with opsoclonus and myoclonus
neuroblastoma
overexpression of what gene is associated with neurblastoma
N-myc
elderly patient presents with non-tender palpable gallbladder with jaundice, pruritis, dark urine, pale stools
adenocarcinoma of pancreas
most important risk factor for developing adenocarcinoma of pancreas
smoking
what happens to strawberry hemangioma
increases in size before it regresses
most common primary brain tumor in adults
glioblastoma multiforme
brain tumor associated with necrosis, hemorrhage, and pseudopalisading tumor cells around necrosis
glioblastoma multiforme
myxomatous changes in media of large arteries predispose to what
medial degeneration and anuerysms
what can lead to SVC syndrome
mediastinal mass from centrally located lung carcinoma
extramedullary hematopoiesis is most frequently caused by
severe chronic hemolytic anemias
idiopathic systemic vasculitis associated with adult onset asthma, eosinophilia, p-ANCA
Churg-Strauss syndrome
antibody against neutrophil myeloperoxidase
p-ANCA
glomangioma
small, red-blue lesion under the nail bed
function of glomus body
shunts blood to or away from skin surface in order to conserve or dissipate heat. glomangioma is lesion found under the nail bed
complication of Wernicke's encephalopathy associated with permanent memory loss and confabulation
Korsakoff syndrome
what can lead to left recurrent laryngeal nerve impairment causing hoarseness
left atrial enlargement
what is polymyalgia associated with
temporal arteritis
neck, torso, shoulder, pelvic girdle pain, and morning stiffness associated with temporal arteritis
polymyalgia rheumatica
subepithelial deposits of IgG and C3b showing lump-bumpy pattern on LM
post-strep GN
most common malignant of asbestos-exposure
bronchogenic carcinoma
risk factors for SCC of esophagus
smoking, alcohol, plummer-vinson syndrome, achalasia; dysphagia is common sign
associated with fat replacement in bone marrow and pancytopenia
aplastic anemia
associated with rapidly progressive dementia and myoclonic jerks
Creutzfelt-Jacob disease
glycoprotein with intracellular tyrosine kinase activity that increased endodermal growth factor receptors and cell proliferation in breast cancer
HER2/neu oncogene
associated with increased PT, PTT, fibrin-split products, and decreased fibrinogen and platelet count
DIC
NF-kB responsible for what
cytokine production
immune-mediated demyelinating disorder of peripheral nerves
Guillan-Barre syndrome
chemotactic factors
LKB4
C5a
associated with abnormal BMPR2 (bone morphogenic, protein receptor) and increased vascular smooth muscle proliferation
pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH)
chromogranin and synaptophsin are what
neuroendocrine markers
what is nocturnal coughing associated with
GERD
what two things are NSAID-associated chronic renal injury
papillary necrosis
chronic interstitial nephritis
what are clear cells of renal cell carcinoma jammed with
glycogen and lipid
which arteries are not involved in polyarteritis nodosa
lung
associated with oligomenorrhea, hirsutism, obesity
polycystic ovarian syndrome
what two disorders are polycystic ovarian syndrome associated with
type 2 DM
endometrial adenocarcinoma
what causes formation of acidophil bodies
apoptosis of hepatocytes in hepatitis
integrin-mediated adhesion of cell to BM and ECM involve binding of integrins to what
fibronectin
collagen
laminin
most common cause of urinary tract obstruction leading to hydronephrosis in elderly male
BPH
proteolytic enzymes that cleave cellular proteins involved in apoptosis
caspases
what is associated with urinary urgency, frequency, hesitancy; associated with back pain
metastatic prostate cancer
hemosiderin accumulation is associated with what patient
that receiving blood transfusion frequently
associated with intranuclear inclusions in keratinocytes and multinucleated giant cells
herpes virus
associated with palpable skin lesion, abdominal pain, arthralgias; can cause glomerulonephritis
Henoch-Schonlein purpura
organ that is least susceptible to ischemic infarcts
Liver - dual blood supply
proximal muscle weakness, autonomic nerve involvement, absent reflexes; associated with small cell carcinoma of lung
Lambert-Eaton syndrome
CNS tumors of neuronal origin stain positive for what
synaptophysin
what tumors stain positive for GFAP
astrocytoma
ependymoma
oligodendroglioma
carbon tetrachloride poisoning
hepatic injury due to P450 system producing free radicals
what neurotransmitters is deficient in Huntington's disease
GABA
how is copper usually excreted
bile - decreased excretion in Wilson's disease
characteristic CXR in obstruction of mainstem bronchus
pulmonary opacification and deviation of mediastinum toward opacified lung
Flat-topped violaceous plaques over joints of fingers associated with what disease
dermatomyositis
what does parvovirus B19 cause in adults
self-resolving arthritis that mimics RA
drug used to control symptoms of carcinoid syndrome
octreotide
extended consumption of appetite depressants is associated with what
pulmonary HTN
fishy odor of vaginal discharge, especially with addition of KOH
bacterial vaginosis
monoclonal lymphocytic proliferation
strong evidence for malignancy
associated with fever, bilateral conjunctivitis, lymphadenopathy, strawberry tongue, desquamation of fingertips, generalized rash
Kawasaki disease
major complication of kawasaki disease
coronary artery aneurysms
cyanotic spell are associated with what
tetralogy of fallot
avascular necrosis of femoral head
sickle cell disease
vasculitis characterized by granulomatous inflammation of the media; associated with headache, facial pain, and visual deterioation
temporal arteritis
associated with hypochlorhydria, decreased IF, increased gastrin and methylmalonic acid
astrophic gastritis
what happens in atrophic gastritis once B12 replacement therapy is begun
increased retic count rapidly, Hb and RBC increase steadily and MMA acid decreases
associated with atrophic seminiferous tubules with decreased inhibin and increased FSH
cryptorchism
associated with hemosiderin-laden macrohpages in alveoli
left-sided HF
associated with positive Rhomberg sign, areflexia, and argyll-robertson pupil
Tertiary syphilis
pupil responds to accomodation but not light
argyll-robertson pupil
child with ALL has respiratory symptoms and dysphagia; which cell type is predominant
T-cell predominant ALL
most common cause of mitral stenosis
chronic rheumatic heart disease
associated with amyloid formed deposits in the thyroid
medullary carcinoma
what drug can provoke Prinzmetal's angina
Ergonovine
acute renal failure in children associted with microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia
HUS
two organisms that cause HUS
O157:H7
Shigella dysenteriae
clinical signs seen in HUS
diarrhea from infection
oliguria/anuria from acute renal failure
pallor and red urine from microangiopathic hemolysis
two severe complications associated with hemochromatosis
cirrhosis
hepatocellular carcinoma
pathophys of hemochromatosis
decreased inhibition of transferrin uptake of iron in intestinal epithelium
two watershed areas of the bowel
splenic flexure
distal sigmoid
radiolucent kidney stone
uric acid
inborn defect of the transporter of cystine, ornithine, arginine, lysinse associated with increased risk of developing kidney stones
cystinuria
antibody against ERB-B2 receptor in breast carcinoma
trautuzumab
what is associated with wedged shaped necrosis of cerebral convexities lateral to the interhemispheric fissure
hypoxic encephalopathy
confirmatory test for cystic duct obstruction
positive HIDA scan - failed gallbladder visualization on radionuclide biliary scan
associated with linear IF stain of BM and crescent formation on LM
Goodpasture's disease
differentiate joints involved between RA and OA
RA - middle and poximal
OA - distal
associated with increase in unmineralized osteoid matrix and widened osteoid seams. Osteoid matrix accumulation around trabeculae
Rickett's
associated with trabecular thinning with fewer interconnection
osteoporosis
associated with spongiosa filling medullary canal with no mature trabeulae
osteopetrosis
BT, PT, and PTT seen in HUS
increased BT
normal PT and PTT
most common cause of aortic stenosis
senile calcific aortic valve degeneration (7th decade)
what valve defect is endocarditis associated with
aortic regurge
where is H. pylori infection located causing duodenal ulcers
prepyloric/antral stomach
chronic cholestasis is associated with malabsorption of what nutrients
Vitamins A,D,E,K
most common cause of recurrent lobar hemorrhages
cerebral amyloid angiopathy
what can happen during recovery phase (polyuria) of ATN
dehydration
hypokalemia
what is associated with subperiosteal resorption with cystic degeneration
hyperparathyroidism
what is the function of c-MYC, what is it mutated in
c-MYC normally is a transcription activator
mutated in Burkitt's lymphoma due to t(8:14)
associated with thryotoxicosis, tenderness of thyroid, and increased ESR
granulomatous thyroiditis
mixed cellular infiltration with occasional multinucleated giant cells found in thyroid
granulomatous thyroiditis
gliosis
proliferation of astrocytes in area of nueron degeneration
what two things are associated with increased WBC and immature (bands, metamyelocytes, myelocytes)
leukamoid reaction
CML
how do you differentiate CML from leukamoid reaction
CML - decreased neutrophilic alkalikne phosphatase
Leukamoid rxn - N/increased neutrophilic alkaline phosphatase
what patients are predisposed to infective endocarditis
prosthetic heart valves
prior inflammation and scarring
what are vegetations of infective endocarditis composed of
fibrin and platelet deposition
Cushing's triad
hypertension
bradycardia
irregular respiration
what is cushing's triad associated with
increased intracranial pressure
what does inhibition of 7a-hydroxylase lead to
reduced conversion of cholesterol to bile acids resulting in excess cholesterol secretion in bile
*can precipitate cholesterol gallstones
what drug inhibits 7a-hydroxylase leading to increased cholesterol secretion in bile which can lead to increased risk of precipitating cholesterol gallstones
fibrates
two indirect indicators of chronic alcohol consumption
macrocytosis (>100)
GTT
what does total parental nutrition (TPN) induce gallstone formation
decreased CCK leads to biliary stasis due to absent enteral stimulation
what should be given to patients on TPN to prevent gallstone formation
CCK
associated with capillary hemangioblastoma in retina/cerebellum and congenital cysts in kidneys/liver/pancreas
Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome
associated with renal angiomyolipoma, cardiac rhabdomyoma, and cortical/subependymal hamartomas
tuberous sclerosis
drugs associated with acute interstitial nephritis
B-lactams
where does shigella invade the GI mucosa
gains access to M cells in Peyer's patches in Ileum
what are associated with spontaneous pneumonthorax
apical subpleural blebs
severe, episodic unliteral periorbital and temporal pain associated with lacrimation/nasal congestion
cluster headache
what type of headache is more associated with men occuring same time each day
cluster headache
thrombus where causes splenomegaly, ascites, and varicosities
portal vein thrombosis
what does PAS stain for
glycogen
what are at risk during pelvic surgeries in women
ureters
what is associated with easy fatigability, constipation, back pain, and azotemia with in elderly patient
multiple myeloma
associated with large eosinphilic casts composed of Bence-Jones proteins
multiple myeloma
what are ulcers found in the distal duodenum associated with
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
substance released by endothelial cells that causes vasodilation, inhibits platelet aggregation and increases vascular permeability
prostacyclin
infiltration of what causes retraction of skin in breast cancer
Cooper's suspensory ligaments
what is a systolic pressure gradient between the LV and aorta associated with
aortic stenosis
Vitamin preterm infants need due to increased risk for hemorrhagic disease of newborn
vitamin K
most common cause of mitral insufficiency
myxomatous degeneration due to MVP leads to MR
what is composed of abnormal proliferation of cytotrophoblasts and synctiotrophoblasts, no villi present
choriocarcinoma
associated with cerebellar ataxia, loss of proprioception/vibration, kyphoscoliosis, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Friedrich Ataxia
characterized by loss of epidermal melanocytes
vitiligo
associated with Aschoff bodies due to recent bacterial infection
rheumatic carditis
malignant carcinoma with well-differentiated columnar cell that line alveolar septa without stromal invasion of the lung
bronchoalveolar carcinoma
associated with erythrocytosis, hepatic abrnomalities, and acne
steroid abuse
IgG4 antibodies to phospholipase A2 receptor
membranous nephropathy
what can be lethal in rheumatic fever
severe myocarditis
common complication associated with gram negative bacterial sepsis, acute pancreatitis, and burn injury
DIC
schistocytes seen in meningitis infection due to N. meningitidis
DIC is present
what causes pituitary dysfunction in patient's postpartum
ischemic necrosis during birth
subacute sclerosing encephalitis is associated with what organism
measles
FGFR-3 mutation at the epiphyseal growth plate with defective chondrocytes
achondroplasia
what causes tissue destruction in TB
delayed type IV hypersensitivity
most likely presentation to hospital for patient with hyperchylomicronemia
abdominal pain due to acute pancreatitis
painless hematuria 2-3 days following an URI
IgA nephropathy
associated with increased JVP, hypotension, and pulsus paradoxus
cardiac tamponade
increase in what hormone is seen in hydatidiform mole
B-hCG
what can complete hydatidiform mole become
choriocarcinoma
associated with increased BT and PTT
vWF disease
shape, chest pain exacerbated by coughing and swallowing that presents 2-4 days after transmural MI
pericarditis
associated with ballooning degeneration, bridging necrosis, and mononuclear inflammation of sinusoids and portal tracts
viral hepatitis
associated with musculoskeletal pain, insomnia, and emotional disturbances
fibromyalgia
first symptoms of alcohol withdrawal
tramulousness
associated with crescent formation of glomeruli with absent Ig or C3 deposits
ANCA-associated RPGN
defect in the hepatic excretion of bilirubin glucuronides, with grossly black looking liver
Dubin-Johnson syndrome
associated with hepatic lysosomes having deposits of epinephrine metabolites
dubin-johnson syndrome
where in the brain would a tumor present with precocious puberty
pineal gland due to germinoma
leads associated with RCA, LAD, and LCA occlusions
RCA - II, III, AVF
LAD - V1-V4
LCA - V5 and V6
bilateral acoustic neuromas are associated with what
NF-2
hemorrhagic necrosis of temporal lobes is associated with what infection
HSV-1 encephalitis
monoclonal antibody directed against CD20
rutuximab
B-cell lymphoma with painless waxing and waning lymphadenopathy
follicular lymphoma
lymphoma associated with t(14:18) with overproduction of BCL-2
follicular lymphoma
associated with non-bilous vomiting
pyloric stenosis
kidney at birth of child with APCKD
normal