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25 Cards in this Set

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Antagnostic Hormones
Hormones that interact with each other. Hormone levels can be controlled by the interaction of hormones that have opposing physiological properties.
Steroid Hormones
Manufactured from cholesterol. Has a central structure of four carbon rings and are fat soluable through the membrane of the receptor cell.
Non-steroid Hormones
Composed of either proteins, peptides, or amino acids. They bind to receptors on the surface of target cells.
Exocrine Gland
Release their secretions through ducts or tubes. Examples include: sweat glands, salivary glands, and tear glands
Endocrine Gland
ductless glands that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream
Hypothalamus
a part of the brain connected to the pituitary gland which continuously monitors the state of the body's internal environment and regulate pituitary activity
In what ways does caffeine affect the body?
-Inhibits the breakdown of cyclic AMP
-Cyclic AMP accumulates in the cytoplasm
-Mimics the stimulating affects of other hormones such as adrenaline
What are the processes that the hypothalumus and pituitary gland control?
- metabolic rate
-kidney function
-appetite
-mental alertness
-reproduction
-growth and development
Portal System
- the network of blood vessels that connects the pituitary gland to the nervous system
Tropic Hormones
-hormones that are produced by the pituitary gland which are used to regulate the hormone production of many other endocrine glands in the body (example: TSH)
What cells does the anterior pituitary form from during embryo development?
formed from cells from the roof of the mouth that migrate toward the brain.
What is the posterior pituitary formed from?
neural tissue
What hormones are produced from the anterior pituitary?
-FSH and LH
-HGH
-PRL
-ACTH
-TSH
What hormones are produced from the posterior pituitary?
-Oxytocin
-ADH
Human Growth Hormone
-non steroid hormone
-sometimes referred to as somatotropin
How does HGH cause the body to grow and develop?
- increasing intestinal absorption of calcium
-increasing cell division and development
-stimulating protein synthesis and lipid metabolism
Because HGH is a tropic level hormone, what parts of the body does it trigger long term growth and development in?
-Liver and tissues
-bone and cartilage
What causes pituitary dwarfism?
-insufficient HGH production during childhood
What makes pituitary dwarfism different than genetic dwarfism?
-body proportions are normal and puberty may be delayed or not happen at all.
-could be the result of a pituitary tumour or total absense of pituitary gland
How do scientists and health professionals create HGH for treatment of pituitary dwarfism?
-biotechnology
-inserting sections of DNA that code for HGH into strains of bacteria
-bacteria rapidly produce HGH as a waste product
What does an excess of HGH production prior to puberty lead to?
-gigantism
What are the main symptoms of gigantism and how can it be treated?
-abnormal growth of long bones in the skeleton
-removal of a pituitary tumour or irradiation of gland tissue
What is the condition called when an adult experiences excess amounts of HGH?
-agromegaly
What are the symptoms of agromegaly?
- excessive thickening of bone tissue
-abnormal growth of the head, hands, and feet as well as spinal deformities
Prolactin
-non steroid hormone produced by the anterior pituitary and by the immune, brain and pregnant uterus in smaller quantities
-stimulates the development of mammary glands to produce milk