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38 Cards in this Set

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Epithelial Tissue
Form linings of organs and structures; Usuallt tightly packed Cells
Connective Tissue
Connect, protect, storage usually few cells and alot of extracellular material between the cells
Muscle Tissue
contraction, movement and other work needed by the body
Nervous Tissue
Conducts impulses for information processing and communication.
Name Charachteristics of Epitherial Tissues
Have a free surface
are connected to underlying tissues via basment membrane
made of tightly packed cells
avascular( no blood vessels)
specialized cells, depending on function
Epitherial tissues are named for their
number of layers, and shape of their cells
Name charachteristics of simple squamous epithelium
single layer of flat cells
produces the thinnest possible layer for diffusion and filtration
Air sacs of the lungs and capillaries
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium charachteristics
one layer of rounded or cube shaped cells, somwhat round nucleus is easy to spot.

Produces a layer of cells for absorbtion or secretion

Many glands (thyroid) Kidney tubles
Charachteristics of simple columnar epithelium
single layer of tall cells with an oval nucleus.
Absorbtion, secretion. and sometimes glandular
stomach, intestines, and a few misc ducts.
Name charachteristics of Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
One layer of tall and short cells, which gives the false impression of two layers. Associated with mucous-producing goblet cells. The cilia move mucous and trapped particles. Protection and secretion.

Found lining the trachea and most of the respiratory tract.

Mucous Cells exist individually in many epithelial tissues, such as the goblet cells in PSCE
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
Many layers of flat cells (although, the mitotic cells near the basement membrane may appear more rounded). Protection from friction and a good barrier. May be filled with the protein keratin (e.g. skin) for added protection and water-proofing. Or nonkeratinized for a smoother protective layer (e.g. mouth, esophagus, vagina).
Connective Tissue
Connect, protect, store, and other miscellaneous functions. In many ways, the opposite of epithelial tissues -comparatively few cells and a great deal of non-living material secreted by the cells.

Most have fibers and glue-like material called the matrix (non-living material). The glue-like material is called the ground substance and varies in thickness and hardness. The fibers are:

1. Collagen (strongest, thickest, white)

2. Reticular (also derived from collagen, but intermediate in strength and thickness; tend to form nets)

3. Elastic (wavy and flexible)
Connective Tissue Cells
fibroblasts,
mast cells,
macrophages, and white blood cells,
Mesenchymal cells
The suffix “cyte” usually refers to??
refers to the less active, mature form of that cell, which may play more of a maintenence role (e.g. osteocyte).
Connective Tissue Fibers are?
Collagen,
Reticular,
Elastic
Areolar Connective Tissue
Irregular arrangement of fibers with a more fluid matrix. Fibroblasts and other cells sprinkled in between. Flexible attachment and packing material. Below skin; in many membranes; around various organs.
Reticular Connective Tissue
Loose matrix in which reticular fibers dominate. Creates network for other cells to reside. Lymphatic tissues such as found in the lymph nodes and spleen are good examples.
Adipose Tissue
Loose matrix with closely packed, large, rounded/irregular cells that look empty, but are filled with a large fat vacuole. Much more than energy storage - also cushions and insulates. Below skin, around various organs such as the heart and kidneys.
Dense Regular Connective Tissue
Densely packed collagen fibers running mostly in the same direction; fibroblasts wedged in-between fibers. Strength of attachment, especially when stress will be along a predictable line. Found in ligaments, tendons, and sheets of connective tissue (e.g. fasciae and aponeuroses).
Cartilage
All forms of cartilage have this in common:

1. Collagen fibers “glued” and packed so densely that matrix appears mostly smooth.

2. Chondrocytes live in little cavities called lacunae.

3. Very strong yet somewhat flexible attachment and protective covering.
Hyaline Cartilage
Collagen fibers “glued” and packed so densely that matrix appears smooth; chondrocytes in little holes called lacunae. Very strong yet somewhat flexible attachment and protective covering. Connection of ribs to sternum (costal cartilage), covering of bones at movable joints.
Fibrocartilage
Densely packed collagen fibers with some irregular bundles of fibers such that the matrix appears less smooth than hyaline cartilage. Strong yet slightly more resilient than hyaline cartilage, which allows some compression and stretching. Intervertebral discs are the primary site of fibrocartilage use by the human body.
Elastic Cartilage
Collagen fibers “glued” and packed so densely that matrix appears smooth; chondrocytes in little holes called lacunae. Strong yet amazingly flexible. The external ear (pinna) and epiglottis.
Miscellaneous Connective Tissues
Bone - a step above hyaline cartilage in strength with calcium and other substances making for a harder (but less flexible) matrix.

Blood - a connective tissue with a fluid matrix. Chemically connects nearly all parts of the body.
Membranes:
Sheets of epithelium with a layer of (usually loose) CT underneath.

Cutaneous membrane (skin) - large, dry membrane with keratinized stratified squamous epithelium.

Serous membrane - produces thin serous fluid on surfaces of closed body cavities and organs.

Mucous membrane - moist membrane lining surfaces that open to the exterior with lamina propria of loose CT (e.g. inside lining of lungs and digestive organs).
Muscle Tissue
1. Produces movement via contractile proteins (actin and myosin).

2. Conductive.

3. Most cells are long and thread-like (also called muscle fibers).

4. Usually highly vascularized.

Skeletal Muscle Tissue, Cardiac Muscle Tissue & Smooth Muscle Tissue.
Nervous Tissue
Neuroglia (or glial cells) – the non-conductive support cells. Neurons -the conductive cells.
Name the four basic tissue catagories
Epithelial Tissues, Connective Tissue, Muscle, Nervous
Name five Epithelial Tissues
Simple Squamous Epithelium,
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium,
Simple Columnar Epithelium,
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium,
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
Name 10 Connective tissues
Areolar Connective Tissue,
Reticular Connective Tissue,
Adipose Tissue
Dense Regular Connective Tissue
Cartilage
Hyaline Cartilage
Fibrocartilage
Elastic Cartilage
Membranes
Name 3 types of membrane
Cutaneous membrane (skin)
Serous membrane
Mucous membrane
Nervous Tissue is also called??
Neuroglia
Name 2 Miscellaneous Connective Tissues
Bone and Blood
Name 3 Caretlages
Hyaline Cartilage
Fibrocartilage
Elastic Cartilage
What do all forms of cartlige have in common??
1. Collagen fibers “glued” and packed so densely that matrix appears mostly smooth.

2. Chondrocytes live in little cavities called lacunae.

3. Very strong yet somewhat flexible attachment and protective covering.
Epithelial Tissues charachteristics
Epithelial tissues form the linings of the body and its organs (inner and/or outer). They are made of tightly packed, specialized cells with no blood vessels.

1. Have a “free surface”

2. Are connected to underlying tissues via the basement membrane

3. Made of tightly packed cells

4. Avascular (no blood vessels)

5. Specialized cells depending upon function

Epithelial tissues are named for their number of layers... and for the shape of their cells
Connective Tissues charachteristics
Connect, protect, store, and other miscellaneous functions. In many ways, the opposite of epithelial tissues -comparatively few cells and a great deal of non-living material secreted by the cells.

Most have fibers and glue-like material called the matrix (non-living material). The glue-like material is called the ground substance and varies in thickness and hardness. The fibers are:

1. Collagen (strongest, thickest, white)

2. Reticular (also derived from collagen, but intermediate in strength and thickness; tend to form nets)

3. Elastic (wavy and flexible)
Connective Tissue Cells charachteristics
1. Fibroblasts: Matrix-producing cells specializing in making protein fibers. The suffix blast is commonly used to describe a tissue-building type of cell.* These cells tend to specialize depending upon the type of connective tissue in which they are found (e.g. osteoblasts).

2. Mast cells: release chemicals involved in the inflammatory response such as histamine.

3. Macrophages and white blood cells: involved in defense.

4. Mesenchymal cells: Embryonic CT cells.

* The suffix “cyte” usually refers to the less active, mature form of that cell, which may play more of a maintenence role (e.g. osteocyte).