Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/23

Click to flip

23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
vancomycin
● a glycopeptide antibiotic
● used as a prophylaxis and treatment of infections w/ Gram + bacteria
●MOA= prevents polymerization of peptidoglycans in bacterial cell wall
● renal clearance
● IV administration only. Not absorbed orally because hydrophilic and large
Theophylline
●methylxanthine drug
●↑cAMP
●respiratory disease (COPD) or asthma
●f=90-100% oral
●narrow therapeutic index
●at high conc. approaches zero order kinetics
●metabolized in liver to demethylated xanthines which are excreted in the urine
Warfarin
●anticoagulant
●inhibits normal synthesis of Vit K dependent clotting factor in liver II, VII, IX and X and protein C and S
●f=90-100% oral
●long half-life
●protein bound
●metabolized by liver
Phenytoin
●antiepileptic
●inhibits high freq AP by binding to voltage sensitive Na channels of neurons
●f=90-100% oral
●acts by stabilizing the inactive state of voltage gated Na+ channels
●zero order kinetics at high concentration
●metabolized in the liver
●2 component distribution
Digoxin
●used to treat atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter and congestive heart failure
●inhibits the cellular Na+/K+ ATPase pump to increase intracellular Na which impairs Na/Ca exchanger and increases intracelluar Ca.
●f=90-100% oral
●renal and hepatic clearance
●large Vd
●2 compartment distribution
Lidocaine
●local anesthetic
●antiarrhythmic
●Na channel blocker
●f=30-35% oral
●extensive first-pass metabolism inthe liver
●2 compartment distribution profile
Gentamicin
●aminoglycoside antibiotic
●binds to 30s ribosomal subunit and inhibits protein synthesis
●used to treat bacterial infections esp. gram -
●is nephrotoxic
●renal clearance
Tobramycin
●doesn't pass GI tract so only administered IV/IM
●renal clearance
Tobramycin sulfate is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat various types of bacterial infections, particularly Gram-negative infections.

Tobramycin works by binding to a site on the bacterial 30S and 50S ribosome, causing the genetic code to be misread, leading to a defective bacterial cell membrane.
Penicillin G
●used in the prophylaxis and treatment of infections caused by gram + bacteria
●prevents peptidoglycan cross-linking
●renal and hepatic clearance
●elimination dependent on renal function
●half life can increase 20 fold in renal failure
Aspirin
●analgesic
●antipyretic (fever reducer)
●anti-inflammation
●Cox-1 & Cox-2 inhibitor to prevent conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins
●zero order elimination at high concentration
EtOH
●MIXED ORDER KINETICS of elimination at high concentration
Propranolol
●β-blocker
●used to treat hypertension
●f=30-35% oral
●extensive first pass metabolism
●lipid soluble
● large Vd
Synthetic Sympathomimetics

Isoproterenol (stimulates β1 and β2 receptors)
Physiological effects
Decrease TPR (β2 receptor)
Increase CO (β1)
Small increase in MAP
Bronchodilation (β2)

Toxicity
Arrhythmias

Indications
Bradycardia/heart block
when TPR is high
Bronchospasm w/ anesth

Contraindications
Tachyarrhythmias
Angina
Synthetic Sympathomimetics
Dobutamine (stimulates β1 receptors)
Physiological effects
Increase CO (β1)

Toxicity
Arrhythmias
Hypertension

Indications
Short-term Rx for HF or
cardiogenic shock, excess
β-blockade

Contraindications
Subaortic stenosis
Synthetic Sympathomimetics
Terbutaline and Albuterol (salbutamol) selective β2-agonists
Physiological effects
Bronchodilation
Uterine relaxation

Indications
Bronchospasm
Chronic Rx of obstructive airway Dx

Toxicity
Tachycardia
Muscle Tremor
Tolerance
Synthetic Sympathomimetics
Phenylephrine (stimulates α1 receptors)
Physiological effects
Increase TPR
Decrease HR (baroreflex)
Pupillary dilation
Decrease bronchiol and
sinus secretions

Toxicity
Hypertension

Indications
Hypotension during anesthesia
SV tachycardia
Mydriatic agent in opthalmic Rx
Nasal congestion

Contraindications
Severe hypertension
Ventricular tachycardia
Synthetic Sympathomimetics
Chlonidine (stimulates α2 receptors)
Physiological effects
acute increase in BP (peripheral effect)
reduced BP (central effect)

Toxicity
Dry mouth
Sedation
Hypertensive crisis (after acute withdrawal)

Indications
Hypertension due to sympathetic
activation
Indirect Acting Sympathomimetcs
Amphetamine,methamphetamine, methylphenidate,ephedrine,
pseduoephedrine and tyramine
Physiological effects
increased diastolic and systolic BP
positive inotropic and chronotropic effects
CNS stimulant
Anorexia

Toxicity
Tachycardia
Anxiety

Indications
Attention Deficit Disorder
Narcolepsy
Nasal decongestion

Contraindications
Hypertension
Severe athrosclerosis
History of drug abuse
Rx with MAO inhibitors within 2
wks
Non-selective β-blockers
Propranolol/Nadolol/Timolol
Physiological effects
Decreased HR
Decreased contractility
Decreased renin release
Inhibits aqueous humor
production

Toxicity
Bronchospasm
Mask symptoms of
hypoglycemia

Indications
Hypertension
Angina
Glaucoma
Early to moderate Heart Failure
Arrhythmia
Thyrotoxicosis
Anxiety
Migraine

Contraindications
Bronchial Asthma
Sinus bradycardia
2nd and 3rd degree heart block
Cardiogenic Shock
Severe Heart Failure
Cardio selective β1-blockers
Metoprolol/Atenolol/Esmolol
Physiological effects
Decrease BP
Decrease HR
Decrease contractility
Decrease renin release

Toxicity
Dizziness
Depression
Insomnia
Hypotension

Indications
Hypertension
Angina
Arrhythmia

Contraindications
Sinus bradycardia
2nd and 3rd degree heart block
Cardiogenic Shock
Severe Heart Failure
Partial Agonist β-blockers
Pindolol (less bradycardia and lipid abnormalities)
Physiological effects
Decrease BP
Decrease contractility
Decrease renin release

Toxicity
Dizziness
Depression
Insomnia
Hypotension

Indications
Hypertension
Angina

Contraindications
Sinus bradycardia
2nd and 3rd degree heart block
Cardiogenic Shock
Severe Heart Failure
Non-selective α-blockers
Phentolamine/Phenoxybenzamine
Physiological effects
Decrease BP

Toxicity
Prolonged hypotension
Reflex tachycardia
Nasal congestion

Indications
Hypertension associated
w/ pheochromocytoma
Vasoconstrictor-induced
extravasation

Contraindications
Coronary artery disease
selective α1 blockers

Prazosin/Doxazosin/Terazosin
Physiological effects
Decrease BP
Decrease urinary
obstruction from BPH

Toxicity
Syncopy
Orthostatic Hypotension

Indications
Hypertension
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)