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85 Cards in this Set

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Provides the subject, central concepts, values and beliefs, phenomena of interest, and the central problems of discipline
Domain; it is the perspective of a profession
links science, philosophy, and theories accepted and applied by the discipline
paradigm
What four linkages are included in the Nursing's paradigm?
the person
health
environment/situation
nursing
direct the activity of the nursing profession, including knowledge development, philosophy, theory, educational experience, research, and practice.
nursing's paradigm
the recipient of nursing care, including individual clients, families, and communities.
Person
includes all possible conditions affecting the client and the setting in which health care needs occur
environment/situation
Diagnosis and treatment of human responses to actual or potential health problems
Nursing
conceptualization of some aspect of nursing communicated for the purpose of describing, explaining, predicting, and/or prescribing nursing care.
Nursing theory
explains factors within a client's living situation that support or interfere with the client's self-care ability
Orem's theory
How do nursing theories work?
provide nurses with:
perspective to view client situations
a way to organize data, and a way to
analyze and interpret information
a set of concepts, definitions, and assumptions or propositions to explain a phenomenon
Theory
what are the five components of caring according to Swanson's theory?
knowing
being with
doing for
enabling
maintaining belief
is an aspect of reality that people consciously sense or experience.
phenomenon
In Neuman Systems Model, what is included as a phenomenon?
all client responses
environmental factors
and nursing actions
can be simple or complex and relate to an object or event that comes from individual perceptual experiences
concepts
According to Neuman Systems Model, what factors are considered to be concepts?
internal and external environmetal factors: physiological, psychological, sociocultural, and environmental
How do internal and external environmental factors effect the client?
it may relate to health and wellness, prevention, stressors, and defense mechanisms.
uses a system approach to describe how clients deal with stressors in their internal and external environment
Neuman's theory
the "taken for granted" statements that explain the nature of the concepts, definitions, purpose, relationships, and structure of a theory.
Assumptions
broad in scope, complex, and therefore require further specification through research.
grand theories
more limited in scope and are less abstract. They address a specific phenomenon and reflect practice (administration, clinical, or teaching).
middle-range theories
Neuman System Model is an example of what type of theory?
Grand theory; it provides comprehensive foundation for scientific nursing practice, education, and research.
this type of theory tends to cross different nursing fields and reflect a wide variety of nursing care situations, such as uncertainty, incontinence, social support, quality of life, and caring
middle-range theories
Mishel's theory of uncertainty in illness is what type of theory?
middle-range theory; focuses on clients experiences with cancer while living with continual uncertainty. provides basis to assist clients in coping with uncertainty and the illness response.
first level of theory development; describes phenomena, speculate on why phenomena occur and describe the consequences of phenomena.
Descriptive theories
These types of theories DO NOT direct specific nursing activities but help to explain client assessments
Descriptive theories
address nursing interventions for a phenomenon and predict the consequence of a specific nursing intervention
Prescriptive theories
designates the prescription (nursing intervention), the condition under which the prescription occurs, and the consequences
Prescriptive theories
Mishel's theory of uncertainty predicts that increasing the coping skills of clients with gynecological cancer assists their ability to deal with the uncertainty of the cancer dx and tx.
This is a type of prescriptive theory: Hint: "Predicts"
This type of theory provides a framework to design interventions that support and strengthen client's coping resources.
Prescriptive theory
The overall goal of nursing knowledge is to explain the practice of nursing as different and distinct from the practice of which three areas?
Medicine
Psychology
Social work
spoke with firm conviction about the "nature of nursing as a profession that requires knowledge distinct from medical knowledge"
Florence Nightingale
What is the basis for professional nursing?
the integration of theory into practice
explains a systematic view of a phenomenon specific to the discipline of inquiry
interdisciplinary theory
which theory helps to explain how children think, reason, and perceive the world? And what type of theory is this?
Piaget's theory of cognitive development. This is an example of interdisciplinary theory
What are the two types of system theories?
open
closed
human organisms or processes like the nursing process interact with the environment, exchanging information between the system and the environment is which type of system theory?
Open
A system that does NOT interact with the environment, such as a chemical reaction within a test tube is what type of system theory?
Closed
what is the goal of the nursing process ?
to organize and deliver an individualized approach to nursing care
what are the four components of the nursing process AS A SYSTEM?
input
output
feedback
content
for the nursing process, this is the data or information that comes from a client's assessment
input
for the nursing process, this is the end product and is whether the client's health status improves or remains stable as a result of nursing care
output
serves to inform a system about how it functions; the clients response to nursing interventions
feedback
product and information obtained; is the information about the nursing care for clients with specific health care problems. pts with impaired mobility have specific skin care needs and tx
content
an interdisciplinary theory that is useful for designating priorities of nursing care
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
what are the five levels of Maslow's hierarchy of needs?
physiological needs
safety and security needs
love and belonging needs
esteem and self-esteem needs
self-actualization
What is included with physiological needs?
air, water, and food
what is included with safety and security needs?
physical and psychological security
what is included with love and belonging needs?
friendship, social relationships, and sexual love
What is included in esteem and self-esteem needs?
self-confidence, usefulness, achievement, and self worth
What is included in self-actualization needs?
the state of fully achieving potential and having the ability to solve problems and cope realistically with life's situations.
The goal of nursing is to facilitate "the body's reparative processes" by manipulating client's environment: belongs to which theory?
Nightingale's theory
What was the framework of practice for Nightingale's theory?
to provide fresh air, light, warmth, cleanliness, quiet, and adequate nutrition. Also, socialization and hope.
The nursing goal of which theory is to develop interaction between the nurse and client?
Peplau's theory
According to Peplau's theory, what are the four phases that characterize the nurse-client interpersonal relationship?
orientation
identification
explanation
resolution
assisting the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities that will contribute to health, recovery, or a peaceful death.
Henderson's theory
The goal of henderson's theory is...
independence
How many basic needs are structured into Henderson's theory?
14
Henderson's theory includes phenomena from the following five domains of the client:
physiological
psychological
sociocultural
spiritual
developmental
Which theory considers the individual (unitary human being) as an energy field coexisting within the universe?
Roger's theory
what are the four dimensions of Roger's theory?
energy fields
openness
pattern and organization
dimensionality
which theory focuses on the client's self-care needs?
Orem's theory
How does Orem define self care?
learned, goal-oriented activity directed toward the self in the interest of maintaining life, health, development, and well-being.
what is the goal of Orem's theory?
to help the client perform self-care, or to increase the client's ability to independently meet the needs to perform self care.
According to Orem's theory, nursing care is necessary when the patient is unable to fulfill which needs?
biological
psychological
developmental
and/or social needs
According to Leininger's theory, which social structure factors are significant forces affecting care and influencing the client's health and illness patterns?
religion
politics
culture
traditions
What is the goal of Leininger's theory?
to provide the client with culturally specific nursing care.
Roy's theory views the client as what kind of system?
Adaptive
According to Roy's model, the goal of nursing is to ........
help the person adapt to changes in physiological needs, self-concept, role function, and interdependent relations during health and illness.
According to Roy's theory, when is nursing care needed?
When the client cannot adapt to internal and external environmental demands.
According to Roy's theory, what four demands must all individuals adapt to?
meeting basic physiological needs
developing a positive self-concept
performing social roles
achieving a balance between dependence and independence
which theory defines the outcome of nursing activity in regard to the humanistic aspects of life?
Watson's theory
According to Watson's theory, what is the purpose of nursing actions?
to understand the interrelationship between health, illnes, and human behavior.
what must the nurse be knowledgeable in Watson's theory?
human behavior and human responses to actual or potential health problems.
According to Watson's theory, the nurse must also know what about the client, the clients family, and the nurse?
individual needs, how to respond to others, and strengths and limitations of the client, family, and those of the nurse.
what three things does the nurse offer the client and family in Watson's theory?
compassion, comfort, and empathy.
Caring is central. Caring creates possibilities for coping, enables possibilities for connecting with and concern for others, and allows for the giving and receiving of help.
Benner and Wrubel's theory
According to Benner and Wrubel's theory, which four things matter to people?
persons
events
projects
things
Benner and Wrubel's theory sees WHAT as a inherent feature of nursing practice?
personal concern
What are the organizing frameworks for the science of nursing and the substantive approaches for nursing care?
Theories
"reflects on the basic values, guiding principles, elements, and phases of a conception of nursing": is which type of knowledge?
Theoretical
to stimulate thining and create a broad understand of the "science" and practices of the nursing discipline: is the goal of which knowlege?
Theoretical
the "art" of nursing, which is based on the nurses' experience in providing care to clients: is which type of knowledge?
Practical
Who transports the art and science of nursing into the scientific realm of creative caring?
The "expert nurse"
determines how accurately a theory describes a nursing phenomenon, and increases nursing's knowledge base
Theory testing