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41 Cards in this Set

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PATRISTIC ERA
2nd - 5th century A.D. Named for the major writers are known as the "fathers" of the Church
PAGAN
those persons who are neither Christians nor Jews (in Roman times)
MYSTERY-RELIGIONS
in Greek and Roman religious worls, secret cults that conducted ritual initiations into the mysteries of a particular god or goddess.
IMPERIAL CULT
Roman world, a partly political and partly religious ceremony in honor of the emperor who was recognized as a superhuman or divine figure
MARTYRS
"witness"; someone who, under persecution, dies rather than give up his or her faith
RELICS
the bodily remains of martyrs and saints
CONFESSORS
those who were arrested during persecution and stood firm in their faith but who were not put to death
APOLOGISTS
attempted to respond to pagan criticisms of Christianity by explaining what Christians believed and how they lived their lives in terms with which they could relate
DIDACHE
the teaching of the twelve apostles
CREEDS
a short summary of belief
EPISCOPACY
government by bishops
DOCETISM
the beliefe of some early christians that Jesus did not really become flesh but only seemed to have a body; could not suffer or die
DUALISM
(1) in gnosticism, a way of looking at reality as divided between two hostile divine powers (good and evil); (2)efforts designed to bring unity and cooperation between divided Christian churches or between Christians and Non-Christians.
GNOSTICISM
two gods: one who was the supreme godhead of the divine realm (representing good) and the other the creator of the physical universe (evil)
ALLEGORICAL
hidden spiritual meaning beneath the bare literal meaning of the text
ECUMENICAL COUNCIL
a universal gathering of Christian bishops to resolve urgent issues affecting the whole church
DOGMA
a religious teaching based on divine revelation and defined by the church
COUNCIL of NICAEA
325 A.D.; bishops indicated their opposition to Arianism by approving a creed or statement of beliefs- Nincene Creed
COUNCIL OF CONSTANTINOPLE
381 A.D.; the Nincene Creed was confirmed and expanded
CAPPADOCIAN FATHERS
Basil of Caesarea, Gregory of Nyssa, and Gregory of Nazianzus; came from the cetral region of Asia Minor known as Cappadocia
COUNCIL OF EPHESUS
431 A.D.; Mary was declared to be the Mother of God "Theotokos"
COUNCIL OF CHALCEDON
451 A.D.; represents the decisive stage in the development of the early Christian doctrine of Christ
MONOPHYSITES
believers in a single nature of Christ
PATRIARCH
bishop of one of the "leading seats" of early Christianity: Rome, Alexandria, Antioch, and Constantinople.
ASCETISM
the training or discipline of the passions and hte appetites
CENOBITIC MONASTICICM
"common life"; communities of monks
BASILICA
"royal"; adaptation of standard rectangular shape or royal audience halls and public buildings in Roman cities
CATHEDRAL
bishop's church
MEMORIA
built to honor the tomb of a saint or martyr; octagonal or cruciform shape
IRENAEUS OF LYONS
late 2nd cent., bishop of church in Lyons in S. Gaul. Wrote Against Heresies, in response to Gnosticism
ORIGEN OF ALEXANDRIA
c.185-c. 251; director of school of Alexandria; believed the theologian had a calling from the Holy Spirit
CONSTANTINE
reigned 306-337; established practice of ec. council, his conversion increased rate of conversions, founded Constantinople
THEODOSIUS I
reigned 379-95; made Christianity the sole legal religion of the empire
ARIUS
4th century Alexandrian, argued that only the Father was God and the Son was less than God
APOLLINARIS OF LAODICAEA
taught Christ had no human soul
NESTORIUS
became patriarch of Const. in 428; defined 2 who's: son of God and son of Mary and 2 natures
ANTONY OF EGYPT
(251-356) the father of Christian monasticism
AUGUSTINE
354-430; theologian and bishop of Hippo; best known for opposition to Pelagianism and Donatism, his theological doctrines of grace, original sin, and predestination, and his solution to problem of evil.
AMBROSE OF MILAN
4th century, bishop and former provincial governor whoese sermons inspried the yound Augustine to take Christianity seriously.
PELAGIUS
4th cent.; British monk who came to Rome around 388; "Pelagianism"
PELAGIANISM
notion that original sin did not seriously damage the human capacity to do good, that human nature remained essentially good, and that human beings could lead holy lives if they exerted sufficient effort.