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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
General Skeleton
Adapted for: weight bearing
locomotion
protection
206
Divisions: axial
appendicular
Skull
Cranial: enclose brain, mm attach
Facial: face, cavities for sense, opening for air and food, teeth, mm of face
Cranium
Divided into: 1. cranial vault - superior, lateral, posterior
2. base - floor: a. anterior cranial fossa b. middle cranial fossa c. posterior cranial
Skull Cavities
1. cranial cavity
2. smaller: inner ear, orbits, nasal (sinuses)
3. 85 passageways for - vessels, nerves, spinal cord
Occipital Bone
Hypoglossal - 12
Ex Occipital Crest - ligamentum nuchae - secures vertebrae to our skull
Nuchal - mm of neck and back
Temporal Bone
Petrous Ridge
Jugular foramen - glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory (9-11)
Int. Acoustic - facial, vestibulocochlear (7 + 8)
Sphenoid
Pterygoid - pterygoid mm
sella turcica: hypophyseal fossa - pituitary gland
Superior orbital fissure - occulomotor, trochlear, abducens
Foramen rotundum - maxillary branch of trigeminal
Ovale- mandibular branch
Spinosum - middle meningeal artery
Ethmoid
Cribriform - filaments of 1
Crista Galli - falx cerebri - portion of dura mater
Superior, middle nasal conchae
Orbital plates
Mandible
Coronoid - temporalis m
mandibular f - inferior alveolar n
mental - vessels, nerves to lip and chin
Maxilla
incisive f - vessels, nerves
Inf. Orbital fissure - maxillary n (branch of trigeminal)
Infraorbital f - infraorbital n
Special Parts of Skull
1. Nasal cavity
2. Paranasal Sinuses
3. Orbits
4. Hyoid bone
Nasal Cavity
Roof - cribriform of ethmoid
Floor - palatine bone
Lateral - nasal bones, conchae, perpendicular plates of palatine
Superior, Inf, Middle meatuses: under conchae
Paranasal Sinuses
Loc: frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid, maxillary
FCN: mucus warms, moistens, filters
Lighten skull
Orbits
Roof -lesser wing sphenoid, frontal
Lateral Wall - greater wing, zygomatic,
Medial Wall - Sphenoid body, ethmoid, frontal proc. maxilla, lacrimal, nasal
Floor - palatine, zygomatic, maxilla
Hyoid
Moveable base for tongue
Body and greater horns: supra and infrahyoid mm
lesser horns: stylohyoid lig
Vertebral
26 bones
24 vertebra
Intervertebral discs: nucleus pulposus - compressive stress
anulus fibrosus - fibrocartilage - tension and torsion
Ligaments: Anterior longitudinal - prevent displacement
posterior long
ligamentum flavum - between laminae - elastic
Vertebral Curvatures
Increase resiliency
Primary - present at birth
thoracic and sacral
Secondary - 1st 2 yrs
cervical and lumbar
Atlas
lacks body and spinous
anterior posterior arches and tubercles
lateral masses
C3-C7
Small body
Shoft, bifid spinous
vert foramen = triangular
transverse foramen
T1-T12
Heart shaped body - sup/inf costal facets
T10-12 have one facet
sharp spinous, pointing inferior
vert for = circle
Transverse costal facets- tubercle of rib, except T11/12
L1-L5
Big kidney shaped body
short, thick pedicles and lamina
short, flat spinous
triangular vertebral foramen
Sternal angle
allows body to swing anteriorly during inhalation
Disorders of axial skeleton
Scoliosis - usually in t-spine due to mm imbalance, leg length discrepancy
Kyphosis - thoracic hunch due to osteoporosis, poor posture, osteomalacia
lordosis - lumbar - obesity, pregnancy, mm, malacia
Stenosis of Lumbar - narrowing of vertebral canal, back pain secondary