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78 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Much of what we perceive as taste is actually _____.
_____ also respond to chemicals, those dissolved in air.
Olfactory cells
Olfactory cells are modified neurons found in _____ in the roof of the nasal cavity. They are the only neurons known to replace themselves.
Olfactory cells(neurons)replace themselves about every _____ days.
There are two sets of iris muscles, the ____ and the ____ or ____.

The posterior portion of the vascular tunic is the ____. This is the middle layer between the sclera and the retina and its blood vessels help to supply their needs. Its pigment absorbs excess light after it has passed through the retina, preventing it from reflecting back and forth in the eye and disrupting the image.
choroid coat
Olfactory neurons produce _____ when chemical smells stimulate receptor proteins which produce a second messenger that opens sodium channels.
Many sensory receptors stop responding when a _____ is constant. We smell an odor when we enter a room and soon we do not notice it. We say these senses are _____ because they only respond when the stimulus changes and stop when it is continuous.

fast adapting
Aqueous humor is produced by secretion by cells in the _____ body. It must be absorbed at the same rate it is filtered and this is accomplished by absorption into the ____ (scleral venous sinus).

canal of Schlemm
Some sensory receptors such as those to sight and sound are _____ because their response is nearly constant.
slowly adapting
Circular muscles of the pupil are innervated by the parasympathetic fibers of nerve ____, while radiating muscles are innervated by sympathetic fibers from the ____ ganglion.
III (Oculomotor)

The outer structure which supports the eye is the _____, part of the eye's _____.

fibrous tunic
The middle layer of the eye is called the ____ because it is highly _____. These vessels serve other layers like the retina and sclera.
vascular tunic

Individuals with very lightly pigmented irises have difficulty seeing well in very _______ light.
The part of the sclera visible anteriorly we call the _____.
white of the eye
The _____ is a thin tissue which covers what we see of the sclera and which has blood vessels running through it. These vessels bring the blood supply to the vicinity of the sclera and cornea, which are _____ (without blood vessels).

When the vessels in the conjuctiva become inflamed we say our eyes are _____. Drugs are used which constrict these vessels and reduce the inflammation.
The anterior portion of the fibrous tunic is the _____.
Unlike the sclera the cornea is _____ because its collagen fibers are finely divided and very regularly spaced.
The surface of the cornea is ____ and can repair itself when scratched. Scar tissue forms when the fibrous portion of the cornea is _____.

The cornea's shape bends entering light toward the ____.
All receptors are _____ that is they respond to a stimulus by changing it into a generator or receptor potential.
Receptors can be classified according to the _____ to which they normally respond.
______ respond to a mechanical stimulus: examples are touch, pressure, stretch, hearing, balance, position and movement, vibration, muscle contraction, as well as pressoreceptors and baroreceptors.
______ respond to temperature change: example heat and cold.
_____ respond to light: example vision.
_____ respond to various chemical such as glucose, oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones and many, many more (taste buds & olfactory cells).
_____ pain receptors from any noxious stimulus (free nerve endings, heat/cold free nerve endings)
We tend to classify receptors according to the _______________.
location or origin of the stimulus
______ respond to stimuli from outside the body - vision, sound, touch, smell, temperature, pain. etc.
____ or _____ respond to stimuli arising within the body such as chemical stimuli, deep pressure, and many others.

______ respond to muscle or tendon stretch and help the body monitor body position (body sense).
_______ sense receptors are the most complex.
______ receptors have no special structure and are basically free nerve endings. Examples are pain receptors, temperature receptors, Merkel disks (touch), hair root plexus.
_____ receptors have a special capsule which encloses a nerve ending.
________ light touch
Meissner's corpuscles
______ deep pressure, vibration
Pacinian corpuscles
________ muscle stretch
Muscle spindle receptors
_______ tendon stretch, muscle contraction.
Golgi tendon organs
Some organs are more complex than these and are considered ______ senses.
Taste cells are _____ possessing microvilli that respond to chemicals taken into the mouth.
neuroepithelial cells
They are called _____ because they respond to stimuli by releasing neurotransmitter from vesicles they contain.
neuroepithelial cells
Taste cells replace themselves about every ____ days from the basal cells nearby, and therefore taste buds recover quickly from damage.
The fifth taste is a response to _____ dubbed "yummy" or deliciousness.
The three types of papillae are believed to help sense _____.
Taste stimuli travel through the _____ and _____ nerves, and some from the vagus nerve, to the thalamus and gustatory center in the ____ of the inner parietal lobe.


The vascular tunic is also highly _____. This _____ serves to absorb excess light.

The opening in the iris is the _____ and serves to direct the incoming light rays toward the center of the lens, its most effective part for refraction. Muscles on the posterior side of the iris enable the pupil to be ____ or ____.


Another part of the vascular tunic is the _____ which attaches to the _____ ligament which holds the lens in place and maintains the shape of the lens.
ciliary body

suspensory ligament
The _____ (located within the ciliary body) are circular muscles which act to regulate the tension on the lens and its shape.
ciliary muscles
The _____ is made of flexible proteins called _____ which are produced and maintained by cells called _____. The lens is flexible, but its natural shape is very _____.

lens fibers

A _____ is one which is thicker in the center than at the edges. It causes _____ of light rays. Any given point on an object reflects light rays in all _____. These rays strike the lens at different angles and points, but for an image to be properly focused the lens must cause all rays from the same point on the image to _____ at the same point on the receptor surface.
convex lens


And image as seen by a camera, the eye or for a microscope is ____ (turned upside down and backwards).
For far objects the light rays are nearly ____ and don't require much convergence. But for near objects the rays are not parallel and require more convergence the ____ the object is to the lens.

Close work requires _____ muscle contraction and can lead to ____ strain, while looking at distant objects relaxes and rests these muscles.

eye strain
Individuals whose eyeballs are too long for the natural convexity of their lens have ____ or ____. In this condition the focal plane of the image occurs in front of the retina. The correction is to put diverging lenses, ____ lenses, in front of the eyeball.


Individuals whose eyeballs are too long for the natural convexity of their lens have ____ or ____. In this condition the focal plane of the image occurs in front of the retina. The correction is to put diverging lenses, ____ lenses, in front of the eyeball.


As individuals get older the muscles and ligaments and the lens itself, become less flexible and able to focus at different _____. This is called _____ and literally means "old eyes". These individuals must wear _____ or different lenses for different conditions.


____ is the condition in which the cornea or lens is irregular and misshapen which causes a portion of the image to be out of focus. Lenses are placed in front of the eye which compensate for the irregularities.
New techniques for correcting vision include?
RK (radial keratotomy) in which minor cuts are made in the cornea near its margin.

LASIC surgery which shaves small portions of the cornea to reshape

Lenses over the cornea to adapt to the desired shape
All the structures which allow passage of light process it in some way and are part of the ___ ___, or light bending part.
refractive apparatus
First the _____ bends the light toward the pupil and center of the lens. The _____ center is the most accurate at focusing the light. The _____ itself allows some bending.


The ______ _____ is clear and although light passes through it, it does not normally bend the light rays. Neither does the _____ _____, a jelly-like mass of filamentous proteoglycans which occupies the posterior segment.
aqueous humor

vitreous humor
The _____ humor is crystal clear to allow light to pass through. It functions to support and maintain the position of the _____ helping to prevent _____ detachment.


A _____ aperature (opening) produces a sharper image with a greater range of _____. This is true with a camera and with the eye.

Behind the cornea is the anterior chamber or anterior segment. This cavity is filled with _____, which helps to hold the other structures in their normal position and shape.
aqueous humor
If filtration exceeds absorption, increased pressure builds in the anterior segment producing a condition known as ____. This can result from high blood pressure but usually results from blockage in the Canal of Schlemm. These include diseases or congenital narrowing of the drainage angle. It is treated with _____, or sometimes _____. If left untreated it can damage the structures of the eye, including ultimately the retina, causing blindness.


In many animals, but not man, a very shiny part of the choroid called the _____ allows some of the light to re-stimulate the retina, thus allowing those animals to see better in ____ light.
tapetum lucidum

Individuals whose eyeballs are to short or whose ciliary muscles are weak have farsightedness or _____. Their lens cannot be made convex enough so _____ lenses are used for correction.

Olfactory memories are among the most intense and specific and are stored in the _____ and _____. We can perceive thousands of smells from those stored in our memory.

mamillary body
Since the natural shape of the lens is convex when there is less tension put on the lens by the _____ it becomes more convex for focusing _____ objects. This is achieved by _____ the ciliary muscles.
suspensory ligaments


Since they are circular muscles, contracting them _____ the suspensory ligaments and _____ their tension. Relaxing the ciliary muscles restores the _____ produced by the suspensory ligaments and causes the lens to be pulled ____ less convex, for distant objects.



Taste cells are found in groups called ______ located on the tongue, epiglottis, hard palate and a few other places in the mouth.
taste buds
The circular muscles run in a circle around the pupil, and when they contract the pupil ____. The radiating muscles run in rays from the pupil to the outer edge of the iris. When they contract they ____ the pupil.

The most anterior part of this layer is the ____. We are familiar with the front of the _____ having the color of the eye: brown, blue. This pigment helps to prevent excess light from entering the eye and disrupting the image.

There are four basic tastes and a fifth which appears to make the others more intense. The four basic tastes are ____, _____,_____, and _____. These tastes are unevenly distributed on the tongue and there is a lot of overlap.
sweet, salt, sour, and bitter.
There are three types of papillae: _____ papillae cover most of the tongue and contain most most of the most of the taste buds. _____ papillae are large, contain taste buds, and are found only at the back of the tongue. _____ papillae are very slender, do not contain taste buds, and are found only at near the tip of the tongue.


_____ vs. _____ although all sensory receptors basically do the same thing, they can be classified as to their ______.

Special senses