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103 Cards in this Set

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Orthomyxoviridae
Causes what illness?
Influenza (the flu)
There are about 35-37 types.
Contains antigenic determinant sites: H & N
Orthomyxoviridae: Influenza
Symptoms:
1. Fever
2. Headache
3. Muscle Pain
4. Severe Coughing
5. Lasts 10 days or so
6. Can go into secondary infections like a viral or bacterial pneumonia.
Orthomyxoviridae: Influenza
Transmission:
Aerosols, complicated by overcrowdiing
Orthomyxoviridae: Influenza
Treatment:
No treatment; relieve symptoms (caution - use non-aspirin treatments because of the danger of Reyes Syndrome in children)
Orthomyxoviridae: Influenza
Control:
There is an excellent vaccine.
Note: There is zero chance to get the flu from today's vaccine.
Orthomyxoviridae: Influenza
Characteristics:
Nucleic Acid: RNA
Strandness: Single
Shape: Helical
Envelope: Enveloped
Paramyxoviridae:
Causes what illness?
mumps
Paramyxoviridae: Mumps
Symptoms:
1. Increase in severity relative to age (adolescents are of particular concern)
2. Swelling of lymph and salivary glands around jaw.
3. Goes away with time.
4. In young males, can affect epidemis and testes (which causes pain in the scrotal area).
5. Can cause sterility
6. In both mailes and females past puberty, hearing loss is a possibility.
Paramyxoviridae: Mumps
Transmission:
Aerosols
Any contact with saliva
Paramyxoviridae: Mumps
Treatment:
No treatment; relieve symptoms
Paramyxoviridae: Mumps
Control:
Vaccine - MMR (Mumps, Measles and Rubella)
Paramyxoviridae: Mumps
Characteristics:
Nucleic Acid: RNA
Strandness: Single
Shape: Helical
Envelope: Enveloped
Paramyxoviridae:
Causes: What illness?
Measles: Red measles, Rubelo, Morbilivirus
Paramyxoviridae: Measles
Symptoms
1. Common illness
2. Dry cough
3. Sore Throat
4. Fever
5. Rash that forms in the mouth and can move over entire body.
6. Typically, a children's disease.
Paramyxoviridae: Measles
Complications:
In 1 in 1 million cases, it will advance to the brain stem and can cause coma and death.
Paramyxoviridae: Measles
Transmission:
Aerosols - highly contagious
Paramyxoviridae: Measles
Treatment:
No Treatment; relieve symptoms
Paramyxoviridae: Measles
Control:
MMR Vaccine (Mumps, Measles,and Rubella)
Paramyxoviridae: Measles
Characteristics:
Nucleic Acid: RNA
Strandness: Single
Shape: Helical
Envelope: Enveloped
Paramyxoviridae:
What illness does it cause?
RSV - ( Respiratory syncytial virus) a fairly common respiratory infection. Also called "Rales"
Paramyxoviridae: RSV
Symptoms:
1. Mainly in children and newborns.
2. #1 Respiratory infection
3. Heavy bronchial coughing
4. Wheezing (Rales)
5. Can advance into pneumonia.
Paramyxoviridae: RSV
Transmission:
Aerosols
Paramyxoviridae: RSV
Treatment:
Synagis (attaches to virus and causes it to not be so severe).
Paramyxoviridae: RSV
Control:
No control
Paramyxoviridae: RSV
Characteristics:
Nucleic Acid: RNA
Strandness: Single
Shape: Helical
Envelope: Enveloped
Rhabdoviridae:
What illness does it cause;
Rabies - very spotted in geographical areas of outbreaks.
Very well contained in nature because it "burns itself out" quickly
Rhabdoviridae: Rabies
Symptoms:
1. Around trauma site, after 7 days, the area doesn't heal. After the 7th day, it has spread to point of no return. It will go to the CNS and spread throughout the body. The spread can take anywhere from 30-60 days.
2. Disorientation, agitation, memory loss, throat and neck pain (caused by it setting up in the brain stem).
3. Hydrophobia - extreme fear of water. Because of this, patients don't drink and then "cotton mouth" occurs (a frothing in the mouth).
4. Lapse into coma and typically death occurs as a result of a heart attack (100% fatal)
Rhabdoviridae: Rabies
Transmission:
Mammal bite
Aerosols are a possibility
Organ donations are a possibility
Rhabdoviridae: Rabies
Treatment:
1.Immunoglobulin and full set of vaccinations administered quickly.
2. Rapid response is critical
Rhabdoviridae: Rabies
Control:
Vaccination of domestic animals.
Vaccine for high risk humans (vets, scientists, etc.)
Rhabdoviridae: Rabies
Characteristics:
Nucleic Acid: RNA
Strandness: Single
Shape: Helical
Envelope: Enveloped
Coronaviridae
What illness does it cause?
SARS - Severe acute respiratory syndrome
Coronaviridae: SARS
Symptoms
1. Has possibility of becoming epidemic
2. High fever
3. Diarrhea
4. Can develop into severe pneumonia
Coronaviridae: SARS
Transmission:
Aerosols (easily transmittable)
Coronaviridae: SARS
Treatment
No treatment, relieve symptoms
Coronaviridae: SARS
Control
No control
Togaviridae:
What illness does it cause?
Rubella (caused by Rubivirus)
Sometimes incorrectly called Three Day Measles or German measles.
Togaviridae: Rubella
Two forms of illness create two types of symptoms: Symptom One
Post natal form:
1. Sore throat
2. Fever
3. Overall body weakness
4. Frequently diagnosed as the flu, but after a few weeks, it doesn't go away.
5. Pinkish rash starts on face and spreads
6. Recovery complete
7. Active immunity
Togaviridae: Rubella
Two forms of illness create two types of symptoms: Symptom 2
Congenital form:
1. Pregnant female exposed to Rubella - virus will cross placenta and infect fetus.
2. 1st trimester - Miscarriage
3. 2nd trimester - possible limb loss and neurologicl problems that can continue through third trimester
Togaviridae: Rubella
Transmission:
Aerosols - easily transmittable.
Togaviridae: Rubella
Control:
1. Vaccine - MMR (mumps, measles and rubella)
2. All pregnant females avoid exposure
Togaviridae: Rubella
Characteristics:
Nucleic Acid: RNA
Strandness: RNA
Shape: Single
Envelope: Enveloped
Togaviridae:
What illness does it cause:
Yellow Fever - Tropical infection (not seen frequently in the U.S.); mostly in tropics - South America, Central America, Africa (most prevalent)
Togaviridae: Yellow Fever
Symptoms:
1. Affects humans, cattle, rats
2. Fever
3. Headache
4. Muscle pain
5. Gums bleed
6. Jaundice - liver problems - deaths occur due to kidney and liver problems.
Togaviridae: Yellow Fever
Transmission:
Mosquito bite - sucks blood from mammals then to another mammal
Togaviridae: Yellow Fever
Treatment
No treatment, relieve symptoms
Togaviridae: Yellow Fever
Control
1. Vaccine: poor, but worth it if you are going to tropics
2. Insect repellent and/or netting
3. Mosquito control - drain swampy areas
Togaviridae: Yellow Fever
Characteristics:
Nucleic Acid: RNA
Strandness: Single
Shape: Polyhedral
Envelope: Enveloped
Bunyaviridae
What illness does it cause?
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) caused by "muerto Canyon" virus, also called "sin nombre" (without name)
Entire family of virus is carried by mice transmission
Bunyaviridae: HPS (Hanta virus)
Symptoms:
1. Burns itself out really quickly
2. High Fever
3. Turns into pneumonia that results in Pulmonary problems
4. Onset of fever to death can be 24 hours
5. If patient lasts 72 hours, will probably recover
6. Overall death rate is 33%
Bunyaviridae: HPS (Hanta virus)
Transmission:
Aerosols - dust particles where mouse fecal/urine materials reside.
Bunyaviridae: HPS (Hanta virus)
Treatment:
No treatment, relieve symptoms
Bunyaviridae: HPS (Hanta Virus)
Control
Dust Masks
Be careful in cleaning out areas of mice infestation due to dust particulates
Bunyaviridae: HPS (Hanta virus)
Characteristics:
Nucleic Acid: RNA
Strandness: Single
Shape: Helical
Envelope: Enveloped
Filovaridae:
What illness does it cause:
Ebola fever (caused by ebola virus)
Outbreaks relatively rare and typically small.
Filovaridae: Ebola fever
Symptoms:
1. Burns itself out quickly
2. Acute internal bleeding
3. Progresses to "bleeding out" - eats up internal organs
4. Bleeding from all body orifices (nose, eyes, sweating blood)
5. Death is typically in 7-10 days
6. 80-90% mortality rate
Filovaridae: Ebola fever
Transmission:
Contact with bodily fluids
Filovaridae: Ebola fever
Treatment
No treatment, relieve symptoms
Filovaridae: Ebola fever
Control
1. Isolation (in Zaire, military quarantine)
2. Good antiseptic practices
3. Don't touch patient
Filovaridae: Ebola fever
Characteristics:
Nucleic Acid: RNA
Strandness: Single
Shape: Helical
Envelope: Enveloped
Flaviviridae:
What illness does it cause:
West Nile fever caused by West Nile virus.
Endemic to Africa, carried largely by birds.
Jumped from Africa to US via mainly crows.
Most cases in US are in DFW/Corsicana area. If you want to worry about one, this would be it.
Flaviviridae: West Nile fever
Symptoms:
1. Flu-like symptoms that later develop into encephalitis.
2. Relatively few cases - mortality rates are not calculated because of rarity.
Flaviviridae: West Nile fever
Transmission:
Mosquito bite
Flaviviridae: West Nile fever
Treatment:
No treatment; relieve symptoms
Flaviviridae: West Nile fever
Control:
Insect repellent like "Off"
Flaviviridae:
Characteristics:
Nucleic Acid: RNA
Strandness: Single
Shape: Polyhedral
Envelope: Enveloped
Flaviviridae:
What illness does it cause:
Non-AB Hepatitis: Those above the regular Hep A and Hep B - like the C,D,E ones
Flaviviridae: Non AB Hepatitis
Symptoms:
1. Make take years before it manifests
2. Fever
3. Rash
4. Joint Pain
5. Infection of liver causing jaundice - which leads to complication of liver damage, liver failure, or causes liver cancers.
6. Total recovery is rare.
Flaviviridae: Non AB Hepatitis
Transmission:
1. Sexually transmitted
2. Transplants
3. Needle sharing (drug abuse)
Flaviviridae: Non AB Hepatitis
Treatment:
1. Interferon
2. Ribavirin (not a cure, but slows it down)
Flaviviridae: Non AB Hepatitis
Control:
Avoid modes of transmission
Flaviviridae: Non AB Hepatitis
Characteristics:
Nucleic Acid: RNA
Strandness: Single
Shape: Polyhedral
Envelope: Enveloped
Picornaviridae:
What illness does it cause:
Polio (caused by poliomyelitis virus)
This is the 2nd human disease to be almost totally eradicated from the world.
Piconaviridae: Poliomyelitis
Symptoms:
1. Some time of paralysis of skeletal muscles (usually legs)
2. Death occurs when it hits diaphram
Piconaviridae: Poliomyelitis
Transmission:
Fecal/oral
Fomites
Picornaviridae: Poliomyelitis
Treatment:
No treatment; relieve symptoms
Muscle Therapy
Picornaviridae: Poliomyelitis
Control:
Salk Vaccine - best one
Sabin Vaccine - easiest to use
Good Sanitation
Picornaviridae:
What illness does it cause:
Common colds due to rhinoviris 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9...
Many (100 + types of virus)
Prefers 33 degrees celcius (avg temp of human nose)
Picornaviridae: Common Cold
Rhinovirus
Symptoms:
1. Headache
2. Chills
3. Fatigue
4. Nasal drainage
5. lasts +/- 10 days
Picornaviridae: Common Cold
Rhinovirus
Transmission:
Aerosols and direct contact
Picornaviridae: Common Cold
Rhinovirus
Treatment:
No treatment; relieve symptoms
Picornaviridae: Common Cold
Rhinovirus
Control:
Vitamin C
Increase hand washing
Picornaviridae: Common Cold
Rhinovirus
Characteristics:
Nucleic Acid: RNA
Strandness: Single
Shape: Polyhedral
Envelope: Naked
Picornaviridae:
What illness does it cause:
Hand-foot-mouth disease (commonly called Hoof and Mouth Disease) Coxsacie A virus - A's are usually mild infections, unlike B's that may be life threatening.
Picornaviridae: Hand-foot-mouth Disease
Symptoms
1. Mild
2. Lesions on the extremities and mouth
3. Self-limiting
Picornaviridae: hoof and mouth disease
Transmission:
Fecal/oral
Picornaviridae: hoof and mouth disease
Treatment
No treatment; relieve symptoms
Picornaviridae: hoof and mouth disease
Control
Little control
Vitamin C may help
Picornaviridae: hoof and mouth disease
Characteristics:
Nucleic Acid: RNA
Strandness: Single
Shape: Polyhedral
Envelope: Naked
Picornaviridae:
What illness does it cause:
Short-term hepatitis - Hepatitis A. Fairly distinguished from other 2 types.
Picornaviridae: Hepatitis A
Symptoms:
1. Jaundice (affects liver)
2. If healthy, recovery is complete after about 7 days
3. Immune-suppressed individuals most affected
Picornaviridae: Hepatitis A
Transmission:
Fecal/Oral
Picornaviridae: Hepatitis A
Treatment
No Treatment; relieve symptoms
Picornaviridae: Hepatitis A
Control
Good sanitation
Picornaviridae: Hepatitis A
Characteristics:
Nucleic Acid: RNA
Strandness: Single
Shape: Polyhedral
Envelope: Naked
Retroviridae
What illness does it cause?
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
Human immunodeficiency virus 1, 2 and possible more.
Origins in Africa but Amazonian Indians show antibodies. Virus will attack T cell and macrophages, weakening the immune system
Retroviridae: AIDS
Symptoms:
1. May take up to 10+ years to appear after infection
2. Fever
3. Weight loss
4. Fatigue
5. Swollen lymph glands
Retroviridae: AIDS
Complications:
Deaths due to secondary pneumonias, cancers or leukemias
Retroviridae: AIDS
Transmission:
Sexual
Transfer of blood or blood products
Breast milk
(Main mode of transmission varies according to culture)
Retroviridae: AIDS
Treatment
Relieve symptoms
Cocktail of drugs (AZT, ddI, 3T3 and protease inhibitors) containing inhibitors reduce viral numbers but must be taken at specific time in specific quantities.
Retroviridae: AIDS
Control:
Avoid high risk modes of transmission.
No vaccine, but getting closer
Retroviridae: AIDS
Characteristics:
Nucleic Acid: RNA
Strandness: Single
Shape: Helical
Envelope: Enveloped
Reoviridae:
* Doesn't attack humans
Nucleic Acid: RNA
Strandness: Double
Shape: Polyhedral
Envelope: Naked