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61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Ability to ward off disease with defense mechanisms 2 forms: nonspecific resistance & specific resistance
Lack of resistance
Protection against disease by specific defense mechanisms
Present at birth not specific – respond the same way to any challenge
Not Specific Defence
Skin and mucous membranes stratified layers which slough and are replaced rapidly
Physical barriers
Tears, saliva, mucus, sebum, sweat, urine, digestive juices. Lubricate surfaces to prevent desiccation, trap and wash away foreign materialsand contain acid/pH that kills some microbes
(Non specific defence)
In many secretions; breaks down cell walls of bacteria
Inhibit bad microbes
Nomal bacterial Colonies
microphages – neutrophils and eosinophils from blood, macrophages – in tissues (derived from monocytes)
(Non specific defence)
Seeking out and destroying abnormal cells (natural killer cells) wander throughout body and recognize and bind to most abnormal surface molecules (bacteria, virus-infected cells, tumors)
Immunological surveillance
(Non specific defence)
Lethal oxidants kill microbes digestive enzymes break ingested materials down
Oxidative burst
Interferons – produced by virus-infected cells and some WBCs induce unifected cells to produce antiviral proteins virus can enter cells, but can’t reproduce may also attract and stimulate WBCs and reduce inflammation
Antimicrobial proteins
(Non specific defence)
Response to any tissue damage,
damaged cells release local chemicals (cytokines) that cause:vasodilation & increased capillary permeability mast cell degranulation – release histamine, heparin, and other cytokines redness, heat, swelling, and pain chemotaxis of WBC
(Non specific defence)
Dead cells and fluid
Accumulation of trapped pus
Body temperature >99oF
pyrogens – circulating cytokines that reset thermostat in hypothalamus inhibits growth of some microbes increases metabolic rate = faster repair functions
(Non specific Defence)
The bodies system that protects against particular or specific infections.
Each immune cell responds to one specific antigen.
Allows for a faster, stronger response to a second exposure to the same antigen
Network of vessels that allows for gathering and providing resistance against infection.
Lymphatic System
Excess interstitial fluid and proteins collected from tissue,content depends on tissue region
System of vessels that collect lymph and return it to the bloodstream transports dietary lipids and lipid-soluble vitamins from tissues of GI tract to blood (chyle – creamy white lymph)
Lymphatic vessels
Specialized reticular
connective tissue structures
containing many lymphocytes
Lymphatic tissues & organs
Immune cells responsible for specific resistance
B cells – develop in "bone" marrow (also NK cells)
T cells – mature in "thymus"
Tiny vessels in interstitial spaces. Begin in tissues – one end is closed endothelial cells overlap to form one-way valves interstitial fluid flows in under pressure, but can’t flow out.
Lymphatic capillaries
Similar to veins have many one-way valves – lymph flows toward heart skeletal and respiratory pumps aid flow of lymph.
Lymphatic vessels
Drains lower body and left arm, chest, and head empties into left subclavian vein.
Thoracic duct
Drains right arm, chest, and head empties into right subclavian vein
Right lymphatic duct
Large dilation that collects lymph from lower body.
Cisterna chyli
Clusters of lymphocytes without a capsule.
Lymphatic nodules
Mucosa-Associated Lymphatic Tissues (within mucous membranes)
Found in the pharyngeal region
Found in the intestine
Peyer's patches
T Cells mature in this organ
600 bean-shaped organs located along lymph vessels.
Lymph Nodes
Lymph flows into nodes and through___________, which filters out abnormal materials
Recticular conective Tissue
Largest Lymphatic organ. Consists of Red and White pulp.
Capillary sinusoids full of blood within a reticular network fixed macrophages phagocytize worn-out RBCs and abnormal materials & present antigens to lymphocytes.
Red Pulp
Contains B cells and T cells producing immune responses
White Pulp
specific surface molecular arrangements recognized by immune cells.
Lock & key binding of immune cell to antigen.
Membrane proteins on T cells and B cells that recognize
and bind specific antigens.
Antigen receptors
Self antigens on membranes of all body cells except RBCs(cells constantly manufacture new MHC proteins).
Genetically determined – unique to individuals (except identical twins).
Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Proteins
Selection process during lymphocyte development, destroys cells with receptors reactive to the body’s own antigens immune cells. Recognize self and non-self tissue typing for transplants.
Self Tolerance
B cells - can recognize and bind antigens
T cells - antigens must be presented with MHC to be recognized fragments of antigens bind to newly manufactured MHCs antigen-MHC complexes are inserted in cell membrane
Antigen Presentation
1) APC or infected/abnormal cell presents antigen-MHC complex
2) T cell receptor recognizes and binds specific antigen-MHC complex
3) Costimulation T cell is activated
4) Proliferation and Differentiation
Cell-Mediated Immunity – T cells
Activated T cell divides forming a population of cells recognizing that specific antigen and capable of some immune function
Secrete cytokines, stimulate cytotoxic T cells and memory T cells. Costimulator for B cells stimulate macrophage and NK cell function.
Helper T Cells
Seek and destroy cells with that specific antigen. Kill target cells by 3 methods: cytolysis, Lymphotoxin and apotosis.
Cytotoxic T cells
Clone cells remaining in body for years initiate faster, stronger second response to same antigen.
Memory T Cells
Antibody-Mediated Immunity
B cells
Large proteins composed of 4 polypeptide chains variable segment – antigen-binding site, specific for antigen constant segment – 5 similar structures
Secrete antibodies - antibodies circulate to invasion site antigen-antibody complexes – antibodies bind to specific antigens that initiatied their production
Plasma cells
5 classes of immunoglobulins
IgG – most common (80%); can cross placenta
IgM – first secreted by plasma cells: associated with ABO
blood transfusion reactions
IgA – in secretions, including breast milk
IgE – involved in allergies (on basophils and mast cells)
IgD – involved in B cell activation (on B cell)
Binding antigen alters function of a microbe or chemical. Neutralizes a bacterial toxin, prevents virus entering a cell, prevents movement of bacterial cilia or flagella
Cross-link antigens, making phagocytosis more likely, or causing precipitation (settling out)
Cascade – stimulates phagocytes enhance phagocytosis – “flag” to attract phagocytes
Activate complement
Enhances phagocyte adhesion
Immune response against normal body tissues
Autoimmune disorders
Failure to develop normal lymphatic system
immunosuppressive diseases – AIDS, Cushings syndrome
immunosuppressive agents – drugs (corticosteroids), radiation
Immunodeficiency diseases
Inappropriate or excessive immune responses