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61 Cards in this Set

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What is the function of serous membranes?
To lubricate the body cavity.
Where can you find a serous membrane?
Any body cavity that does not open to the surface. (Thorax, abdominopevlic, etc.)
What is the function of mucous membrane?
To trap dirt, pathogens, and particles.
Where can you find mucous membranes?
Lining body cavities that do open to a surface. (Digestive, nasal, respiratory, urinary, oral, etc.)
Where can you find a synovial membrane?
Lining joint cavities. (e.g. the knee)
What is the function of a synovial membrane?
To lubricate the joint.
The dermis is made of what type of tissue?
Connective.
Assuming all five layers of the epidermis are present, and numbering from the top down, what is the first layer of the epidermis?
Stratum corneum.
Assuming all five layers of the epidermis are present, and numbering from the top down, what is the second layer of the epidermis?
Stratum lucidum.
Assuming all five layers of the epidermis are present, and numbering from the top down, what is the thrid layer of the epidermis?
Stratum granulosum.
Assuming all five layers of the epidermis are present, and numbering from the top down, what is the fourth layer of the epidermis?
Stratum spinosum.
Assuming all five layers of the epidermis are present, and numbering from the top down, what is the fifth and final layer of the epidermis?
Stratum basale.
What membrane is below the stratum basale?
The basement membrane.
What would be the name of the upward projections of the dermis?
The papilla.
What would be the name of the downward projections of the epidermis?
Epidermal ridges.
What is the hypodermis made of?
Subcutaneous fat.
Put the following terms in order from surface to deep: dermis, hypodermis, and epidermis.
1.) Epidermis
2.) Dermis
3.) Hypodermis
What type of tissue is the epidermis made of?
Epithelium tissue, more specifically, stratified squamous epithelium.
What type of tissue is the hypodermis made of?
Connective tissue. Adipose, or fat-storage, cells and loose connective tissue, binding skin to underlying organs.
True or False: The skin is only comprised of one kind of tissue?
False. It is composed of many types of tissues.
What does the skin prevent from easily entering the body?
Microorganisms and other harmful substances.
The skin is vital in maintaining ___________.
Homeostasis.
The skin helps regulate ___________.
Temperature.
What is a chemical that skin can synthesize?
Vitamin D.
What does adipose tissue beneath the dermis help conserve?
Body heat.
In general terms, what happens to a cell when it goes through the process of keratinization.
It hardens. Keratin proteins are synthesized and stored in the cell.
What layer in the epidermis could be called an accumulation of dead, tightly packed cells in the epidermis?
Stratum corneum.
In what layer of the epidermis are the cells starting to become flattened?
Stratum spinosum, the layer above the basal layer, which is the deepest layer.
What is the name of the pigment that melanocytes produce?
Melanin.
What does melanin absorb and what does this prevent?
Melanin absorbs UV radiation and this prevents mutations in the DNA of skin cells.
Melanin controls the _____ of skin.
Color.
Why is the sebacious gland important to the skin and hair shaft?
It secretes a mixture of fatty material and cellular debris called sebum that keeps the hair and skin soft, pliable, and waterproof.
In what layer of the epidermis are melanocytes located?
The basal layer, or stratum basale.
What is the process called in which melanin secreted by melanocytes in the basal layer gets to other cells?
Cytocrine secretion.
Where can you find eccrine sweat glands on the body?
Forehead, neck, and back.
From what dermal layer do the eccrine sweat glands originate from?
The deep dermis or subcutaneous layer.
Which are more numerous: the eccrine or apocrine sweat glands?
Eccrine sweat glands.
Do eccrine sweat glands have an odor?
No.
What homeostatic mechanism are eccrine sweat glands involved with?
Regulating body temperature.
Do apocrine sweat glands have an odor?
Yes.
What is the function of apocrine sweat glands?
To wet the skin during pain, fear, emotional upset, and sexual arousal.
Where on the body can apocrine sweat glands be found?
Near hair follicles on armpit, groin, and around nipples.
What layer of the epidermis is only found on the soles and palms?
Stratum lucidum.
From the stratum basale, the farther the cells are moved, the poorer their ________ supply becomes, and, in time, they ___.
1.) Nutrient
2.) Die
The beginning of the cell flattening process begins in which epidermal layer?
Stratum spinosum.
Which epidermal layer has three to five layers of granular cells that contain keratin and shriveled nuclei?
Stratum granulosum.
What is the hair follicle?
A tube-like depression on the epidermis.
What is the hair shaft made of?
The remains of dead epithelial cells.
What is the hair root?
The portion of the hair shaft that is embedded in the skin.
What is the hair root nourished by?
A projection of connective tissue (hair papilla) at the end of the root get nourishment from dermal blood vessels.
What is the name of the bundle of smooth muscle cells that attach to each hair follicle?
The arrector pili muscle.
What does the arrector pili msucle do?
Makes the hair it is attached to stand on end. This can occur when very cold or getting "goosebumps".
Which dermal receptor can detect heavy pressure?
Pacinian (Lamellated) corpuscles.
Which dermal receptor can detect light touch?
Meissner (Tactile) corpuscles.
What does a Pacinian (Lamellated) corpuscle detect?
Heavy pressure.
What does a Meissner (Tactile)corpuscle detect?
Light touch
What are Pacinian (Lamellated)and Meisnner (Tactile) corpuscles?
Dermal receptors.
Other than Pacinian(Lamellated)and Meissner (Tactile) corpuscles, which detect heavy pressure and light touch, respectively, what do other receptors respond to? What are they called?
Temperature changes and other factors that damage tissue. They are called free nerve endings.
What comprises the connective tissue of the dermis?
Collagen and elastin fibers which make the skin strong and flexible.
What does dermal papillae and epidermcal ridges cause on your fingers?
Fingerprints.
What are the eight general functions of the skin?
1.) Maintain homeostasis
2.) Protective covering
3.) Retards water loss
4.) Regulates body temperature
5.) House sensory receptors
6.) Contains immune cells
7.) Synthesize chemicals (Melatonin, Vitamin D)
8.) Excrete waste