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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
integumentary system
largest organ of the body
10 - 11 lbs. approx. 22 sq. ft.
2 parts of the skin
epidermis
dermis
4 types of cells in the epidermis
keratinocytes 90%
melanocytes 8%
langerhans
merkel
epidermis tissue
keratinized stratified squamous epithelial
keratinocytes
contain intermediate filaments
produce protein keratin
produce lamellar granules
keratin
tough, fibrous protein that helps protein and underlying tissue
lamellar granules
lipid rich secretion
acts as a water repellant sealant
melanocytes
produce melanin
long, slender projections transfer melanin granules to keratinocytes
melanin
brown skin pigment
produced by melanocytes

loss = albinism
vitiligo
langerhans
derived from red bone marrow
act like macrophages in a microbial immune response
merkel cells
function in sensation & touch through merkel disk and contact disk "big butt" interaction
found in the deepest layers of the epidermis
layers of the epidermis
stratum basale
stratum spinosa
stratum granulosum
stratum lucidum (thick skin only)
statum corneum
statum basale
base layer
contains stem cells & keratin
if base layer is destroyed there is no skin growth without a skin graft
3 types of skin grafts
autograft - patient
isograft - identical twin
autologous - donor
stratum spinosa
same organelles as stratum basale
spiny projections between cells are intermediate filaments joining cells through desmosomes (junctions)
thckest layer, provides strength and flexibility (pinch your cheek)
stratum granulosum
transition layer between deep, metabolically active cells and dead cells of the more superficial strata
contains granles of protein keratohyelin and lamellar granules
stratum lucidum
densely packed layers of dead keratinocytes
present only in thick-skinned areas (palms, soles of feet, etc.)
strata corneum
most superficial layer
25-30 layers of flattened dead keratinocytes
lamellar granule secretions fill the extracellular spaces providing waterproofing
keratinization
cells move from deep to superficial accumulating keratin as they move through each layer
buildup of keratin causes apoptosis
dead cells slough off as newer cells replace them
2 layers of dermis
papillary
reticular
merkel cells
function in sensation & touch through merkel disk and contact disk "big butt" interaction
found in the deepest layers of the epidermis
layers of the epidermis
stratum basale
stratum spinosa
stratum granulosum
stratum lucidum (thick skin only)
statum corneum
statum basale
base layer
contains stem cells & keratin
if base layer is destroyed there is no skin growth without a skin graft
3 types of skin grafts
autograft - patient
isograft - identical twin
autologous - donor
stratum spinosa
same organelles as stratum basale
spiny projections between cells are intermediate filaments joining cells through desmosomes (junctions)
thckest layer, provides strength and flexibility (pinch your cheek)
stratum granulosum
transition layer between deep, metabolically active cells and dead cells of the more superficial strata
contains granles of protein keratohyelin and lamellar granules
stratum lucidum
densely packed layers of dead keratinocytes
present only in thick-skinned areas (palms, soles of feet, etc.)
strata corneum
most superficial layer
25-30 layers of flattened dead keratinocytes
lamellar granule secretions fill the extracellular spaces providing waterproofing
keratinization
cells move from deep to superficial accumulating keratin as they move through each layer
buildup of keratin causes apoptosis
dead cells slough off as newer cells replace them
2 layers of dermis
papillary
reticular
papillary region
areolar connective
dermal papillae
free nerve endings
(for hot, cold, pain, tickle, pinch)
dermal papillae
capillary loops
corpuscles of touch
reticular region
dense irregular connective tissue
(collagen and elastin)
hair follicles
sebaceous glands
sudoriferous glands
epidermal ridges
reflect contours of dermal papillae
increase friction
genetically determined fingerprints
Basis of skin color
melanin
carotene
hemoglobin
carotene
yellow orange pigment
resides in stratum basale
hemoglobin
pink pigment of blood vessels in the dermis
blue skin = cyanosis (lack of oxygen)
sebacious glands
secrete oily, moisturizing substance
connect to hair follicles or skin surface
inflammation = acne
sudoriferous glands
apocrine sweat gland
axilla, pubic, breast aureola
sticky sweat
stress sexual excitement
eccrine glands
throughout skin
mainly forehead, palms, soles
watery, cooling sweat
heat aactivated
ceruminous glands
secretes waxy substance
combines with sebacous gland secretions to form cerumen
(ear wax)