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121 Cards in this Set

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A term often used to designate the individual organs of digestion.
viscera
The main part of the digestive system.
alimentary canal; also called GI (gastrointestinal) tract
Refers to the developing GI tract of an embryo.
gut
The branch of medicine dealing with digestion.
gastroenterology
Tube surrounding the GI tract.
coelomic cavity
The lining of the coelomic cavity.
parietal peritoneum
Elevations of the tongue.
papillae
The four layers that surround the lumen (from the inside - out).
mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, adventitia
The three primary functions of the mucosa.
distention, absorption, secretion
The innermost part of the alimentary canal.
lumen (plural: lumina)
The process of assimilating nutrients.
absorption
Position of the organs not covered by the peritoneum.
retroperitoneal
Long, thin sheets of tissue which support the GI tract.
dorsal mesentery
Connects the tongue to floor of the mouth.
lingual frenulum
The state of being enlarged.
distention
What kind of fibers is the submucosa composed of?
elastic fibers, collagen fibers
The process of moving food through the GI tract.
paristalsis
Approximate length of the GI tract.
30 feet
Another name for the mouth.
oral cavity
Term meaning "pertaining to the cheek."
buccal
Describes the body from the chest to the hips.
abdomen
Double folds of peritoneum passing between two organs.
omentum
Location of the lesser omentum.
Extends from the lesser curvature of the stomach to the underside of the liver.
Location of the greater omentum.
Extends from the greater curvature of the stomach to the tranverse colon.
Name the accessory organs of the GI tract.
gallbladder, liver, pancreas
Bulges in the large intestinal wall.
sacculations
A rounded mass of food.
bolus
Dome-shaped portion of the stomach.
fundus
A small, fleshy mass above the tongue.
uvula
Part of the small intestine which receives secretions from the liver and prancreas.
duodenum
Where small and large intestines meet.
ileocecal valve
Bend in the colon left of the abdomen.
splenic flexture
15 cm portion of the large intestine.
rectum
Finger-like structure off the cecum.
appendix
Cartiladge which hangs over the larynx.
epiglottis
The most distended portion of alimentary canal.
stomach
Between the pharynx and ths stomach.
esophagus
The first part of the large intestine. (Where the small intestine and large intestine meet).
cecum
Loss or lack of appetite.
anorexia
Audible rumbling sounds of gas moving through the GI tract.
borborygmos (singular: borborygmus
Shivering or shaking.
chills or rigor
Infrequent or difficult evacuation of feces.
constipation (called obstipation if prolonged)
Difficulty swallowing.
dysphagia
Elevation in temperature above normal.
fever
Excessive gas in the colon.
gas (expressed by bloating, belching, flatulence)
Retrosternal sensation of burning.
heartburn
Vomiting of blood.
hematemesis
Passage of bloody stools.
hematochezia
Passage of dark, pitchy stools. Also refers to black vomit.
melena
Unpleasant sensation in epigastric and abdominal area which often results in vomiting.
nausea
Lacking physical strength.
weakness
Pain during swallowing.
odynophagia
Paleness or absence of skin color.
pallor
Flow in opposite direction as is normal.
regurgitation
Straining (ineffective and painful) during bowel movement.
tenesmus
Forcible expulsion of stomach contents.
vomiting (also called emesis
Losing pounds without trying.
weight loss
Normal temperature.
afebrile
Ring-like band of muscle fibers which constricts a passage or closes an orifice.
sphincter
Elevation of normal body temperature.
febrile (pyrexia)
achalasia
Impairment of normal esophageal peristalsis.
anorexia nervosa
Individual refuses to eat enough to maintain minimal body weight.
appendicitis
Inflammation of the appendix. More specific term: 'Vermiform' appendix.
atresia
Absence or closure of a normal body opening.
bezoar
Partially digested agglomerations of hair or vegetables.
botulism
Food poisening caused by Clostridium botlinum.
cheiloschisis
Cleft lip.
cholesystitis/cholelithiasis
Inflamation of the gallbladder and gallstones respectively.
cirrhosis
Group of liver diseases.
colitis
Inflammation of the colon.
dehydration
Results from excessive loss of body water.
dental caries
Tooth decay.
diarrhea
Frequent, liquid feces.
diverticulum
Abnormal pocket or pouch formed from a tubular structure.
diverticulitis
Inflammation of the diverticulum.
diverticulosis
The presence of diverticula w/the absence of diverticulitis.
Zenker's diverticulum
Most common. Occurs just below the pharynx.
dysentery
A variety of disorders marked by inflammation of the intestines, especially the colon.
amebic dysentery
Most common type caused by amebiasis.
dyspepsia
General term. Indigestion.
enteritis
Inflammation of the intestine. Esp. small intestine.
enterocolitis
Inflammation of intestine and colon.
esohagitis
Inflammation of the esophagus.
fecalith
Intestinal concretion with a fecal center.
fistula
Abnormal passage between two organs or from an internal organ to the outside of the body.
gastritis
Inflammation of the stomach.
cholera
A form of enteritis spread by food and water contaminated with feces.
gastroenteritis
Acute inflammation of the lining of the stomach and the intestines.
gasteoresophageal reflux disease
Reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus. (GERD)
halitosis
Offensive breath.
hepatitis
Inflammation of the liver.
hernia
Protrusion of an organ thru the abdominal wall.
abdominal hernia
Protrustion of some internal body structure through the abdominal wall.
hiatal hernia
Protrustion of the stomach above the diaphragm. There is also: sliding hiatial hernia & paraesophageal hiatus hernia.
inguinal hernia
Hernia into the inguinal canal.
umbilical hernia
Protrustion of a part of the intestine through the umbilicus.
Hirschsprung disease
Congenital megacolon, or dilatation and hypertrophy of the colon.
ileus
Temporary cessation of intestinal peristalsis.
adynamic ileus
Suspension of peristalsis because of paralysis or atony.
Chrohn disease
Unknown cause. Can affect any part of GI. Most common in ileocecal area Leads to obstruction & fistula & abscess formation.
ulcerative colitis
Chronic, nonspecific, inflammatory, & ulcerative arising in the colonic mucosa & rectum.
intussusception
A segment of bowel advances & protudes into the segment distal to it.
irritable bowel syndrome
Intermittent or constant abdominal distrss & bowel dysfunction w/no demonstrable cause.
jaundice
Bile pigment in the skin, mucous membranes, and sclerae.
leukoplakia
White patch on a mucous membrane that will not rub off. Occurs in oral mucosa & is considered precancerous.
malabsorption
Impaired intestinal absorption of nutrients.
mumps
Acute, highly contagous viral disease which causes painful enlargement of the salivery glands.
obstruction
State or conditon of being clogged or blocked.
pancreatitis
Inflammation of the pancreas.
parasites
Plant or animal which lives upon or within another living organism at whose expense it obtains an advantage.
Giardia
Intestinal protozoa; adheres to microvilli of intestine. (Giardiasis refers to the infection that occurs)
peptic ulcer disease
Inflammation and ulceration of the duodenum and stomach.
peritonitis
Inflammation of the peritoneum.
pharyngitis
Inflammaion of the pharynx.
polyp
Any mass of tissue that arises from the bowel wall and protrudes into the lumen.
sessile polyp
Polyp attached by a base.
pedunculated polyp
Polyp attached by a stem-like stalk.
prolapse
Faling down or sinking of a aprt.
pruritis ani
Chronic itching in the anal region.
Schatzki ring
Ring-like narrowing of the lower esophagus.
ulcers
Defect or excavation of the surface of an organ or tissue.