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212 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Accounts for 80% of the brain's mass.
The second major structure of the brain.
Contains some of the most vital centers of body activity.
contains structures associated with visual reflexes and hearing
midbrain or mesencephalon
functions as a relay center within the brain.
The pons
Together with the pons makes up the brain stem.
medulla oblongata
This is made up by the pons and medulla oblongata together.
brain stem
The three membranes which protect the brain and spinal cord.
The outermost layer of the meninges, which contacts the cranium.
dura mater
The thinner, more delicate, middle layer of the meninges.
The innermost layer of the meninges.
pia mater
Projections into the brain ventricles which produce cerebrospinal fluid.
choroid plexus
The raised portions of the cerebellar surface.
A triangular membrane separating the anterior horns of the lateral ventricles.
septum pellucidum
A general term meaning nerve cell.
Deep grooves which divide the lobes of the cerebral hemispheres.
The posterior rounded end of the corpus callosum; it conveys visual information.
splenium of corpus callosum
A general term for an arch-like structure or the vault created by such a structure.
Grooves between the gyri.
A site of union of common parts.
An arched mass of white matter found in the depths of the longitudinal fissure.
corpus callosum
Part of the hypothalamus formed by the crossing of the optic nerves.
optic chiasm
A general term used to describe any anatomical structure shaped like a knee.
Located near the pituitary gland.
mammillary body
Part of the mesencephalon.
corpora quadrigemina
The "master gland."
These merge with the basilar artery at the circle of Willis.
Internal carotid arteries
The sense of smell. There are numerous olfactory nerves which relay sensory impulses of smell from the membranes of the nasal cavity. Damage to these nerves results in a loss of smell.
Cranial nerve I: olfactory nerve
Vision. This is a sensory-only nerve which conducts impulses from the retina of the eye. It originates in the back of the eyeball. Damage to these nerves results in blindness.
Cranial nerve II: optic nerve
This nerve controls all movement of the eyeballs. It is primarily a motor nerve. It comes out of the midbrain and serves four of the six eye muscles, as well as the muscle of the eyelid, iris (which causes pupil dilation), and ciliary body. Damage to these nerves can cause a droopy eyelid, constant dilated pupil, or the inability to rotate the eyeball.
Cranial nerve III: oculomotor nerve
This is a very small nerve, both sensory and motor, which innervates the superior oblique muscle of the eye.
Cranial nerve IV: trochlear nerve
This is the largest of the cranial nerves. It is primarily sensory, but does send motor impulses to the muscles of mastication (chewing). It has three large sensory divisions the ophthalmic branch innervating the orbital region of the face, the maxillary branch innervating the nose and upper jaw, and the mandibular branch innervating the lower jaw.
Cranial nerve V: trigeminal nerve
This is a small nerve which provides both motor and sensory innervation to the lateral rectus eye muscle. Damage to this nerve causes the eyeball to be pulled medially, and makes it unable to move laterally at all.
Cranial nerve VI: abducens nerve
This is a mixed nerve. The motor fibers innervate facial, scalp, and superficial neck muscles. The salivary glands are also innervated by this. The sensory fibers arise from the taste buds on the tongue. Damage to these nerves distorts taste perception, particularly with sweets, and causes the face to sag.
Cranial nerve VII: facial nerve
Hearing and equilibrium. This is also called the acoustic nerve. It is a sensory nerve which arises within the inner ear. The vestibular branch controls equilibrium and balance, while the cochlear portion controls hearing. Damage to these nerves can cause deafness or dizziness and inability to maintain balance.
Cranial nerve VIII: vestibulocochlear nerve acoustic nerve
This is a mixed nerve which innervates the tongue and pharynx. The sensory portion transmits impulses from the tonsils, salivary gland, and back third of the tongue. The motor fibers innervate the muscles of the pharynx which help with swallowing. Damage to these nerves would result in a loss of bitter and sour taste or could cause difficulty swallowing.
Cranial nerve IX: glossopharyngeal nerve
This arises from the medulla and has both motor and sensory fibers which serve autonomic organs of the thoracic and abdominal cavities. It is associated with such functions as breathing, heartbeat, hunger pangs, and peristalsis. One of its branches supplies the larynx and controls speech. Damage to both of these nerves would result in death; with damage to one, only speech and swallowing would be affected.
Cranial nerve X: vagus nerve
This is a motor nerve only. It innervates the muscles of the pharyngeal region as well as the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles. Damage to this nerve would make it difficult to rotate the head or shrug the shoulders.
Cranial nerve XI: accessory nerve
This supplies motor fibers to the muscles of the tongue. Damage would cause difficulty speaking, swallowing, or sticking out the tongue.
Cranial nerve XII: hypoglossal nerve
Nerves which resemble a horse's tail.
cauda equina
Nerve controlling the sense of smell.
Innervates the thoracic and abdominal cavities.
vagus nerve
The impulse originates in the organ and is transmitted to the central nervous system.
The largest of the cranial nerves.
Controls hearing and balance.
A fatty white material supporting a neuron.
Point at the second lumbar vertebra, where the spinal cord tapers. It is cone-shaped.
conus medullaris
A small nerve to the lateral rectus eye muscle.
Supplies motor fibers to the muscles of the tongue.
A band of connective tissue which extends to the coccyx.
filum terminale
Controls all the movements of the eyeball.
oculomotor nerve
Another name for a motor neuron, which originates in the central motor system.
A mixed nerve of the tongue and pharynx.
Lack or loss of memory; the inability to remember past experiences.
Defect or loss of the power of expression, especially speech, but also writing or signing, or of comprehending either spoken or written language due to an injury or disease of the brain.
The loss of the ability to carry out familiar, purposeful movements in the absence of paralysis or another motor or sensory impairment.
A coarse, slow, nonrhythmic movement, usually of the outstretched hands, but also other muscle groups when there is sustained contraction of them. This is also called "liver flap" because it is associated with hepatic comas; however, it is observed in other conditions as well.
Failure of muscular coordination resulting in a reeling, wide-based gait (the manner or style of walking).
A form of dyskinesia marked by ceaseless slow, sinuous, writhing movements, especially of the hands (picture a pianist just before he touches the keys, but slower) which is involuntary.
A psychomotor disturbance usually (but not always) associated with schizophrenia. It can take on different forms and severity, including a decrease in reactivity to the environment, resistance to all instructions or attempts to be moved, maintenance of a rigid posture, excited, uncontrollable and purposeless motor activity, or the assumption of bizarre fixed postures.
A burning pain due to injury of a peripheral nerve.
A headache. There are many different types of headaches which occur for many different reasons. A few of these are stress headaches, cluster headaches, and one of the most severe, migraine headaches.
The ceaseless occurrence of a wide variety of rapid, highly complex, jerky, dyskinetic movements that appear to be well coordinated, but are performed involuntarily. There are several specific types of this.
A violent jar or shock to the brain or the condition which results from such an injury.
A violent, involuntary contraction or series of contractions of the usually voluntary muscles. Sometimes used interchangeably with seizure.
An acute mental syndrome characterized by a reduced ability to maintain attention to external stimuli, disorganized thinking, rambling and incoherent speech, a reduced level of consciousness, incorrect sensory perceptions, disorientation to time, place, or person, and memory impairment. This is a reversible condition.
A false belief which is firmly maintained despite irrefutable evidence to the contrary and in spite of members of the culture not sharing the belief. For example, an individual experiencing delusions might believe that he or she is a famous person.
An organic mental syndrome characterized by a loss of intellectual abilities including impairment of memory, judgment, and abstract thinking, as well as changes in personality. This does not include functional lapses due to depression or clouding of consciousness as in delirium. It is caused by a large number of conditions, some reversible and some progressive, which cause widespread cerebral damage. The most common cause is Alzheimer disease.
A process whereby specific internal mental contents, such as memories, ideas, feelings, perceptions, are lost to conscious awareness and become unavailable to voluntary recall. This is a defense mechanism where such mental processes are separated from the rest of a person's mental activity in order to avoid emotional distress.
Slurring and inappropriate phrasing during speech, as well as inability to control speech volume, due to disturbances of muscular control. This is a result of central or peripheral nerve damage.
The inability to perform rapid alternating movements.
Inability to control muscular range of motion.
Impairment of speech, specifically lacking coordination and ability to arrange words in their proper order.
Disquiet, restlessness, malaise.
Brief, small irregular twitches of muscle visible through the skin, caused by a single motor filament.
A sense perception without a source in the external world. The perception of an object or sound when no such object or sound exists. These can involve all of the senses, but the most common are audio and visual hallucinations.
Sleep disorders consisting of the need for excessive amounts of sleep or causing extreme drowsiness when awake. This can be either psychogenic in origin, have an organic cause involving the nervous system, or be related to medication or drug use.
Abnormally decreased sensitivity, particularly to touch.
Diminished tone of the skeletal muscles.
The formation of a mental concept or image.
Formulating thoughts about harming or killing oneself.
suicidal ideation
Formulating thoughts about harming or killing someone else.
homicidal ideation
The inability to sleep.
A vague feeling of bodily discomfort and fatigue.
A brief, lightning-like contraction of a muscle, a portion of a muscle, or a group of muscles. This occurs in normal healthy people as they fall asleep. A hiccup is a diaphragmatic myoclonus.
Loss or impairment of motor function or sensation in a part.
The term used to describe behavior characterized by systematic delusions of persecution, delusions of grandeur, or a combination of the two.
In general this is a gross impairment in the capacity for sexual activity between adult human partners. There are different types, and they are much more predominant in males. The major paraphilias include: fetishism, transvestism, pedophilia, exhibitionism, voyeurism, masochism, and sadism.
The use of physical objects as the preferred method of producing sexual excitement (such as shoes).
The dressing by heterosexual males in female clothing.
A preference for sexual activity with prepubescent children.
The intentional participation in an activity in which the individual is physically harmed or the individual's life is threatened in order to produce sexual excitement. Examples would be humiliation, bondage, or whipping.
The inflicting of physical or psychologic harm or suffering on a sexual partner as a method of stimulating sexual excitement or orgasm.
Slight or incomplete paralysis.
A test performed during physical examination where the patient reports whether a finger or toe is being moved up or down, and where the patient's stance and gait are examined.
A test performed by having the patient stand with feet together or walk with his/her eyes closed to determine the presence of clumsiness in movements or gait.
Romberg test
An area of lost or depressed vision within the visual field, generally surrounded by normal vision. This is also used in psychiatry as mental _______ or a figurative blind spot, wherein the patient has no insight into his or her problems.
Literally this means a sudden attack or recurrence of a disease. It is often used interchangeably with the term convulsion.
characterized by loss of consciousness and alternate muscular contraction and relaxation in rapid succession. (The contraction and relaxation is called clonus; tonic is the restoration of normal muscle tone.)
tonic/clonic grand mal
brief generalized seizures, manifested by a 10-30 second loss of consciousness with eye or muscle flutterings either with or without the loss of muscle tone, but without clonic activity.
absence petit mal
A lower level of consciousness. The patient responds only to vigorous stimulation. In psychiatry it is used to describe a disorder marked by reduced responsiveness.
An involuntary, compulsive, repetitive movement, usually involving the face or shoulders.
A tingling sensation in the distal end of a limb when percussion is made over the site of a nerve. This is used to determine the presence of carpal tunnel syndrome.
Tinel sign
An involuntary trembling or quivering.
An illusory sense that either the environment or one's own body is revolving. It is mistakenly used synonymously with dizziness.
An abnormal touch sensation such as burning, pricking, or feeling that something is crawling over your skin when no external stimulus is present.
A test on physical examination to determine the presence of carpal tunnel syndrome.
Phalen sign
Repetitive acts of exposing the genitals to an unsuspecting stranger for sexual excitation.
Looking at unsuspecting people who are naked, undressing, or engaging in sexual activity for the purpose of sexual excitation.
Decreased sensitivity to touch.
A burning pain, caused by injury to a nerve.
A coarse, slow, nonrhythmic movement of the outstretched hand. "Liver flap."
A defense mechanism to avoid emotional pain.
A false belief which is firmly maintained despite irrefutable negating evidence.
A hiccup is an example of this.
A lower level of consciousness.
A reeling, wide-based gait.
A sense perception without a source in the external world.
A test for abnormal clumsiness.
Romberg test
A test for carpal tunnel syndrome.
Phalen maneuver
A test performed on physical examination.
A tonic/clonic seizure.
grand mal
A violent jar or shock to the brain, or the resulting condition.
A violent, involuntary contraction.
An acute mental syndrome with rambling, disorganized thinking, incoherent speech.
An area of lost or depressed vision with surrounding normal vision.
An illusory sense that the environment or your own body is rotating.
An involuntary repetitive movement.
An organic mental syndrome.
Behavior with delusions of persecution and/or grandeur.
Brief small twitches of muscle visible through the skin.
Constant rapid, jerky, involuntary movements.
Decreased muscle tone.
Defect or loss of the power of expression.
Gross impairment in normal sexual response.
Inflicting harm or suffering on another for sexual excitation.
Intermittent involuntary contraction and relaxation of muscles.
Involuntary trembling or quivering.
Loss of memory.
Loss of motor function and/or sensation.
Psychomotor disturbance usually associated with schizophrenia.
Slow, writhing movements of the hands.
Slurred and inappropriate speech.
The act of watching unsuspecting females for sexual excitation.
The formation of a mental concept or image.
The inability to perform rapid alternating movements.
The inability to sleep.
The loss of the ability to carry out purposeful movements without paralysis.
The use of physical objects to produce sexual excitement.
A progressive degenerative disease of the brain of unknown etiology, with atrophy of the cerebral cortex including plaques and tangles of neuron particles. It is manifested by memory loss, personality changes and eventually dementia. It occurs twice as often in women as in men.
Alzheimer disease
A congenital deformity which occurs when portions of the medulla oblongata and cerebellum protrude into the spinal canal.
Arnold-Chiari malformation
This is a congenital deformity of tangled, dilated blood vessels where arterial contents flow directly into veins. This produces a consistently enlarging vasculature which causes neurologic abnormalities by compressing neural tissue, the spinal cord, or interrupting blood supply to the brain.
arteriovenous malformation
A tumor composed of neuroglial cells. It is the most common type of primary brain tumor and is also found throughout the central nervous system. There are different classifications and grades of these tumors.
A functional disorder of cranial nerve VII resulting in paralysis of one side of the facial muscles and distortion of taste. This is usually due to a lesion on the nerve.
Bell palsy
A mood/personality disorder where both depressive and excited/elated periods occur. It usually begins with depression and during at least one time during the illness there is an elated period.
bipolar disorder
A disorder caused by compression of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel which is characterized by pain and burning or tingling paresthesias in the fingers and hand, sometimes radiating up the arm.
carpal tunnel syndrome
A broad term which describes a number of motor disorders in young children resulting from brain damage, often in utero or during birth. Symptoms include delayed or abnormal motor development with spastic paraplegia, hemiplegia, seizures, ataxia, and resultant mental retardation.
cerebral palsy
Often used synonymously with a stroke. CVA is a nonspecific term for ischemic (cutting off the blood supply) or hemorrhagic (bleeding) lesions which affect the brain. Technically, a stroke is an ischemic-type lesion.
cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
A mood disorder characterized by depressed feelings (being sad, feeling down in the dumps) with a loss of interest or pleasure from one's usual activities, which persists for two or more years. This differs from major depression because the symptoms typically last longer (sometimes ongoing for many, many years) and are not as severe as in depression.
Inflammation of the brain.
Inflammation of the brain and spinal cord.
Any degenerative disease of the brain.
A recurrent paroxysmal disorder of cerebral function characterized by sudden brief attacks of altered consciousness, motor activity, sensory phenomena, or inappropriate behavior. One episode is generally called a seizure. Any recurrent seizure pattern may be called epilepsy.
A tumor composed of tissue which represents neuroglia. The term is sometimes used to describe any tumor of the brain or spinal cord.
An acute, usually rapidly progressive form of inflammatory polyneuropathy (usually lesions affecting many peripheral nerves simultaneously) characterized by muscle weakness and mild sensory loss. This usually occurs between five days and three weeks after an infectious disorder, surgery, or an immunization.
Guillain-Barre syndrome
A herniated, ruptured, or prolapsed intervertebral disc. Spinal vertebrae are separated by cartilage discs which consist of an outer anulus fibrosus and an inner nucleus pulposus. Degenerative changes can cause the nucleus to rupture or protrude through the anulus fibrosus, where it irritates the nerve root and causes back pain. (Note: annulus is an acceptable alternative spelling.)
herniated nucleus pulposus
A condition marked by dilatation of the cerebral ventricles, usually secondary to obstruction in the pathways for cerebrospinal fluid with a subsequent accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the skull. This is typically characterized by an enlarged head, prominence of the forehead, brain atrophy, mental deterioration, and/or convulsions.
Also called amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A motor neuron disease of unknown cause characterized by muscular weakness and atrophy, cramps, visible fasciculations, spasticity, hyperactive reflexes, dysarthria and dysphagia. This is more common in men than women. 50% of patients die within three years of onset; 20% live five years, and 10% live for ten years.
Lou Gehrig disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
Inflammation of the meninges.
A hernia protrusion of the meninges through a bony defect.
Smallness of the head, usually associated with mental retardation.
A disease in which there are foci of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system, sometimes extending into the gray matter. Symptoms of these lesions include weakness, incoordination, paresthesias, speech disturbances, and visual complaints. The disease is usually prolonged.
multiple sclerosis
The repeated fabrication of illness, usually acute, dramatic, and very convincing, by a person who wanders from hospital to hospital for treatment. Patients are often able to mimic serious disorders with great skill. There is a variation of this illness called Munchausen by proxy wherein the affected person uses a child as the patient, falsifying history and even injuring the child or using drugs, adding blood or bacterial components to urine specimens, and other means to simulate a disease.
Munchausen syndrome
A disease characterized by episodic muscle weakness, primarily in muscles innervated by the cranial nerves.
myasthenia gravis
A hernia protrusion of the spinal cord and its meninges through a defect in the vertebral canal.
Recurrent, uncontrollable, brief episodes of sleep. Also associated with sudden loss of muscle tone, sleep paralysis, or hypnogogic hallucinations.
A familial condition characterized by developmental changes in the nervous system, muscles, bones, and skin with the formation of multiple soft tumors distributed over the entire body.
Paralysis of the legs and lower part of the body.
A slowly progressive and degenerative central nervous system disorder with four characteristic features: slowness and poverty of movement, muscular rigidity, resting tremor, and postural instability.
Parkinson disease
Any traumatic, toxic, inflammatory, or degenerative changes in the peripheral nerves. Results in sensory loss, muscle weakness and atrophy, decreased deep tendon reflexes, and vasomotor symptoms occurring either individually or in any combination. This can afflict a single nerve or many nerves simultaneously (polyneuropathy).
peripheral neuropathy
These are disordered patterns of behavior characterized by relatively fixed, inflexible, and stylistic reactions to stress. These disorders are rigid and not adaptive and damage social, interpersonal and work relationships. These disorders can be classified into several different types. Following is a list of some of the most common personality disorders.
personality disorders
Also called psychopathic or sociopathic personality. Individuals with these disorders act out their conflicts and ignore normal rules of social behavior. They are impulsive, irresponsible, amoral, and unable to forego immediate gratification. They cannot form sustained relationships with others but use charm to get their way. They cannot tolerate frustration, and opposition will likely elicit hostility, aggression, or serious violence. They show little to no remorse or guilt and rationalize and blame others for their behavior.
These individuals are extremely sensitive to rejection, and they fear beginning relationships but have a strong desire for affection and acceptance. They appear shy and timid and are distressed by their inability to relate to others.
These types are unstable in many areas including self-image, mood, behavior, and relationships. They are characterized by frequent mood shifts, impulsivity, inappropriate and uncontrolled intense anger. These people are extremists—the world is either black or white, hated or loved, but never neutral.
These individuals fluctuate in their moods between high-spiritedness and gloom and pessimism, each sustained for weeks or longer. Their mood changes are often rhythmic and predictable and can be set off by trivial or no external causes.
These people surrender responsibility for their lives to others and allow the needs of those they are dependent upon to take precedence over their own needs. They lack self-confidence and initiative, and they are extremely uncomfortable with being alone for more than brief periods.
These people are very egocentric. Winning the esteem and admiration of others is important to them, so they have attention-seeking and theatrical behavior. Emotional immaturity is evident with exaggerated childish responses to any wounding of their vanity. Their behavior is inconsistent because they adopt whatever conduct will place them in a favorable light. In their relationships they have an insatiable need for affection and exhibit sexually aggressive behavior with an underlying wish for nonsexual affection.
histrionic (hysterical)
These individuals have an exaggerated sense of their own importance and are absorbed by fantasies of unlimited success. They also tend to be preoccupied with envy. They constantly seek attention, tend to exploit others, and are overly sensitive to failure or criticism. They also tend to have multiple somatic complaints.
These people are conscientious and have high aspirations but tend to be perfectionists and cannot gain satisfaction from their achievements. They are reliable, dependable, orderly, and methodical, but they are also completely inflexible and thus cannot adapt to a change in circumstances. They are cautious, have anxiety over responsibility (which they take very seriously), and pay attention to every detail. They have difficulty with interpersonal relationships because they lose total control over their feelings and must rely on others.
These people project their own conflicts and hostilities onto others. They are markedly sensitive in relationships and tend to find hostile and malevolent intentions behind trivial and even kindly acts by others. Their suspicions often lead to aggressive feelings or behavior. They have a sense of superiority and often belittle others.
These personality types are characterized by helplessness, clinging dependency, and procrastination. The passivity is designed to gain attention, to avoid responsibility, or to control others. The behavior is often obstinacy, inefficiency, and sullenness, often disguised under apparent compliance. They tend to provoke and engage in arguments, especially with those in authority.
These individuals are withdrawn, solitary, introverted, emotionally cold, and distant. They are absorbed in their own thoughts and feelings and greatly fear intimacy of any kind with others. They tend to daydream and prefer speculation to action. Fantasy is a common coping mechanism.
A neurotic disorder which occurs following exposure to an overwhelming environmental stress (very common in war veterans, for example). Symptoms include consistently reliving the experience, a numbing emotional responsiveness, and a general dysphoria.
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
A mental disorder characterized by gross impairment of reality testing, including delusions, hallucinations, markedly incoherent speech, disorganized and agitated behavior. This term is also used in a general sense to refer to mental disorders where the patient's mental impairment interferes with his/her ability to deal with regular daily life.
Paralysis of all four limbs.
A mental disorder which is characterized by both schizophrenia and mood disturbances.
schizoaffective disorder
A group of mental disorders which are chronic, impair functioning, and are characterized by psychotic symptoms involving impairment of thought, perception, feelings, and behavior. There are six specific criteria which should be present for a diagnosis of schizophrenia: Certain psychotic symptoms, delusions, hallucinations, formal thought disorder; Deterioration from a previous level of functioning; Continuous signs of the illness for at least six months; Generally, an onset before age 45; Symptoms specifically not due to mood (affective) disorders; Symptoms not due to an organic mental disorder or mental retardation.
Defective closure of the bony encasement of the spinal column.
spina bifida
If the cord and meninges protrude through the defect, it is called spina bifida cystica.
spina bifida cystica
If the cord and meninges do not protrude through, it is called spina bifida occulta.
spina bifida occulta
Forward displacement of one vertebra over another. The most common vertebrae affected are the fifth lumbar (over the sacrum) and the fourth lumbar (over the fifth lumbar).
Immobility and consolidation of a vertebral joint, or a general term for degenerative changes of a vertebral joint due to osteoarthritis.
A collection of pus between the dura and the arachnoid membranes. This is most often a complication of sinus infection, but can also be due to ear infection, cranial trauma or surgery, and bacteremia.
subdural empyema
A slowly progressive syndrome in which fluid-filled neuroglial cavities form within the spinal cord. These may extend up into the medulla oblongata or down into the thoracic region. Symptoms include neurological deficits, including muscular weakness and atrophy with dissociated sensory loss (for example, loss of pain and temperature sensation but with preservation of the sense of touch). Thoracic scoliosis is often present.
A fluid-filled neuroglial cavity. It also means a tube, pipe, or fistula.
Tourette syndrome (or Gilles de la Tourette) is an autosomal multiple tic disorder that begins in childhood with simple facial and vocal tics, and progresses to multiple, complex jerking movements which can occur in any part of the body. In adolescence, the condition may worsen. The patient may grunt, snort, and shout involuntarily. It is more common in males by a ratio of 3:1.
Tourette syndrome
Neurologic abnormalities which occur suddenly, are brief (usually lasting only minutes) and are caused by dysfunction in the arterial distribution to the brain. These often occur as a precursor to a stroke.
transient ischemic attack (TIA)
A disorder of the trigeminal (5th) cranial nerve which causes bouts of severe pain lasting seconds to minutes in the distribution of one or more of the nerve's sensory divisions, but most commonly in the mandibular and/or maxillary portion.
trigeminal neuralgia
A series of changes which take place in a severed peripheral nerve fiber. This affects a portion of the neuron, which swells, becomes granular, and breaks up into irregular fragments which eventually disappear. The myelin sheath (if there is one) also fragments and forms irregular globules before disappearing. Because it affects the peripheral nervous system, it is possible to have some regeneration of the damaged nerve fibers.
Wallerian degeneration