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98 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the five main types of blood vessels
Arteries,arterioles.,capillaries venules,veins
What are the three main types of artery walls
Tunica interna or intima, tunica media,tunica externa or tunica adventitia
The tunica intima consists of what???
Lining of simple squamous epithelium called endothelium,(basement membrane)and a layer of elastic tissue called the internal elastic lamina
The ________ is a continous layer of cells that line the inner surface of the entire cardiovascular system.
Define Lumen??(arteries???)
the hollow center through which blood flows
Which layer of the blood vessels is the thickest and what is it made up of????
The tunica media and it consists of elastic fibers and smooth muscle fibers that extend circularly around the lumen
What is the outer layer called and what is it made of???
Tunica Adventitia. elastic and collegen fibers
In muscular arteries what separates the tunica media from the tunica advetitia
external elastic lamina
_________neurons of the ________nervous system innervate vascular smooth muscle.
Sympathetic Autonomic
the term for the vascular smooth muscle contracting is ________????
Smooth muscle fibers relax when sympathetic stimulation decreases or when chemicals Like ______,______,_____,________ and the resulting decrease in lumen diameter is called _________.
nITRIC OXIDE,K+,H+,lactic acidand called Vasodilation.
When an artery or arteriole is damaged it ________.
The largest diameter arteries are called_______ because the tunica media contains a large propportion of ______fibers???>And their walls are relatively _______
Elastic arteries ,elastic ,,,Thin
The elastic arteries funtion as what???
pressure reservoir
Elastic arteries also called _____
conducting arteries
Medium sized arteries are called ______because their tunica media contains more _______and less ________.Making them very capable of contraction and dilation>
muscular, elastic
Muscular arteries are also called _____
distributing arteries
An ________ is a very small artery that delivers blood to capillaries.
arterioles play a key role inregulation of blood flow by regulating ______.
Another name for arterioles is ______
resistance vessels
_________are microscopic vessels that connect arterioles to venules.
the flow of blood from arterioles to venules thru capillaries is called _____
The amount of capillaries in a tissue varies with __________
metabolic activity
________ are abscent in some tissues like cornea lens and cartilage
Another term for capillaries is_____
exchange vessels
If tissue is active _______capillaries fill with blood
avessel that emerges from an arteriole and supplies agroup of 10-100 capillaries is called a _______and the vesssels it supplies are called ________>
metarteriole ,,capillary bed
avessel that emerges from an arteriole and supplies agroup of 10-100 capillaries is called a _______and the vesssels it supplies are called ________>
metarteriole ,,capillary bed
The distal end of a metarteriole,which empties into a_______has ________and is called a ________.
venule,no smooth muscle, called a thoroughfare channel.
At their sites of origin a ring of _____ called a ________ controls the flow of blood to a true capillary
smooth muscle,precapillary sphincter
Intermittent contraction and relaxtion is called________
Blood flows thru ___of a capillary bed?
Name three types of capillaries????
continuous,fenestrated and sinusoids
_________capillaries have gaps between endothelium cells called ________????
contiuous,,intercellular clefts
_________capillaries ,the endothelium has many __________, small holes 70nm to 100nm in dia. These are found in organs like the kidneys choroid plexes,intestine cilliary process.
______ capillaries are wider and more wining,larger fenestrations,and incomplete or absent basement memebrane
______collects blood from capillaries and sends it to veins
The smallest venules are very porous and are a site that ________emigrate to inflamed tissues.
Phagocytic white blood cells
the three types of capillaries are________,_________and___________.
continuous, fenestrated, sinusoid
Capillaries that are a continuous tube of endothelial cells that are only interupted by small intercellular clefts (gaps between cells):thes are found in skeletal and smooth muscle,connective tissue and the LUNGS.
continuous capillaries
these capillaries have many small pores and are found in the kidneys ,small intestines,choroid plexuses,ciliary processes endocrine glands
fenestrated capillaries
____________are wider and more winding than other capillaries. Their endotheliail cells may have large fenestrations,no basement membrane and will allow passage of proteins. liver spleen anterior pituitary,parathyroid
When several capillaries unite they form small veins called ___________.
veins are essentially the same as arteries with some differencesthe tunica interna is ________.the tunicamedia is much__________than in arteries.The tunica adventia is the ______layer and contains collegen and elastic fibers.
___________is a vein with a thin endothelial wall that has no smooth muscle to alter it's diameter.dense surrounding connective tissue supply support.
vascular sinus
Leaky venous valves can cause veins to become dialated and twisted in appearance.This condition called_________.
varicose veins
Tissues that receive blood from more than one artery is termed___________.
3 methods of capillary exchange are____,____,and________.
diffusion,transcytosis, bulk flow
The most important method of capillary exchang is __________they go down their concentrated gradients.All plasma solutes can use this method except proteins.
_________is a passive process by which large numbers of Ions, molecules or particles in fluid move together in the same direction.This works from pressure differences between interstitial fluid and blood hydrostatic pressure.
Bulk flow :filtration and reabsorbtion
two pressure promote filtration(movement of fluid to interstial fluid)1_____________and2____________
blood hydrostic pressure 2.interstitial osmotic pressure
pressur-driven movement from interstitial fluid to blood capillaries is called _________________????this pressure is promoted ___________?????
by blood colloid osmotic pressure
overall the volume of fluid and solutes reabsorbed normally is almost as large as the volume filtered.Name Law
Starling's law of the capillaries
forced caused by the colloidal suspension of the large proteins in plasma that average 26 mmHg in most capillaries
Blood colloid osmotic pressure(bcop)
If filtration greatly exceeds absorption,the result is __________??
Total blood flow is _________,the volume of blood that flows in one minute
cardiac output
___________blood pressure is the highest pressure obtained in arteries during contraction.___________is the lowest arterial pressure attained in arteries during relaxation.
Systolic,diastolic blood pressure
mean arterial blood pressure is _____________?
diastolic pressure +1/3(systolic BP-diastolic BP)
If blood volume falls by _____% blood pressure drops.
Vascular resistance depends on 1.____-2._____3._______
size of vessel 2.lenght of vessel 3.blood viscosity
blood vessel length: for each 2.2 lbs of fat __________ of additional vessels
400 miles
two processes that help venous return are the ___________and the__________
the skeletal muscle pump,,,,,the respiratory pump
fainting ,a sudden temporary loss of consciousness, followed by recovery,most commonly due to cerebral ischemia(((a lack of sufficient blood flow to the brain)is called
__________ an excess decrease in blood pressure that occurs upon standing up,that may cause fainting>
orthostatic hypotension
the _____________of the ___________controls neural,hormonal,and local negetive feedback system
cardiovascular center, medulla oblongata
parasympathetic stimulation conveyes along the ___________nerves(___________)decreases heart rate
vagus (cranial nerve X)
the cardiovascular center also continually sends impulses to smooth muscle in blood vessel walls via_______
vasomotor nerves
these vasomotor nerves continually send impulses to arterioles throughout the body,but especially to _________and ______--.the result is a state of tonic restriction called __________.
skin and abdomonal viscera,vasomotor tone
Barorecepters are located in the _______,________ ,and other large arteries in the neck.the two most important baroreceptor reflexes are the ______and the __________.
aorta, internal carotid arteries,carotid sinus reflex , aortic reflex
nerve impulses propagate from the carotid sinus receptors over sesory axons in the ____________.
glossopharyngeal nerve (cranial nerve IX).
baroreceptors in the aorta reach the cardiovascular center via sesory axons of the _________________
vagus nerve
doctors sometimes use ___________ which invovles carefully massaging the neck over the ____________, to slow the heart rate in a person who has paroxysmal superventricular tachycardia ( originates in atria)
carotid sinus massage, carotid sinus
anything that stretches or puts pressure on the carotid sinus such as hyperextension of neck or tight collars may also slow heartrates and can cause ___________,fainting due to stimulation of the carotid sinus
carotid sinus syncope
chemoreceptors are located close to the barorecptors in the carotid sinus and the arch of aorta in small structures called ___________and _____________respectively.
carotid bodies ,aortic bodies
hypoxia is lowered___________, acidosis is an increase in___________,and hypercapnia is ______________.these chemoreceptors also stimulate ___________.
O2,,H+,,,CO2,,,,respiratory center
Hormones that increase or decrease BP:Epine or Norepine _________cardiac output,,angiotension II, ADH, NOR,EPINE, ___________vasoconstriction.atrial natriuretic peptide (realsed by cells in atria),nitric oxide,and norE__________ in blood pressure
the ability of a tissue to automatically adjust its blood flow to much metabolic demamds is called ____________.
warming promoteds vasodialation,cooling vasoconstriction.smooth muscles in arteriole walls exhibit ____________( the smooth arteriole muscles contract more forcefully )
myogenic response
vasodilation chemicals that are released from cells ( white blood cells smooth muscle cells platelets and endothelial cells )INclude_________,_______,______,and especially_____________
K+<<H+>>lactic acid < nitric oxide
vasoconstrictor chemicals include __________,___________,____________
thrombxane A2, speroxide radicals, serotonin, endothelins
the walls of vessels in the sympathetic circulation __________ inresponse to low O2 levels and the walls of vessels in the pulmonary circulation__________.
___________is a resting heartrate over 100 BPM,and ___________is a resting heartrate under 60 BPM
tachycardia, bradycardia
the device usually used to measure blood pressure is a_________________
the normal ratio of systolic pressure to distolic pressure to pulse pressure is _____________
the failur of the cardiovacular system to deliver is called _______
with inadequate delivery ofO2 cells switch from _________to___________for ATP production.
aerobic, anaerobic
___________shock is due to decrease in blood volume
In _____________shock the heart fails to pump properly
In ____________shock a severe allergic reaction releases histimine that causes vasodialation
_______shock is caused from head trauma to medulla
____________shock is due to vasodilation by certain bacterial toxins
___________shock is due to blockage
the ____________portal vein recieves blood from capillaries of the gastrointestinal organs and the spleen to the sinusoids of the _________.
the _____ drains blood from the small intestine and portions of the large intestine,stomache and pancreas.
superior mesenteric vein,
the _____ vein drains blood from the stomach pancreas and portions of the large intestines
most of fetal blood does not pass from the right ventricle to the lungs ,as does post natal blood ,because of an opening between the right and left atria callled___________?
foramen ovale
the _________ bypasses some of the liver in a a fetal babie.
ductus venosus
the __________is a fetal bypass between the aorta and the pulmonary trunk
ductus arteriosus