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### 73 Cards in this Set

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 Form What happens one after another Repetition, Contrasts and Variation Repititon = same again Contrast = different Variation = similar with some difference Elements of form Theme Sequence Motive Movement THEME MAIN MELODY; MELODY THAT REOCCURS THROUGHOUT A SECTION, MOVEM,ENT, OR AN ENTIRE COMPOSITION. SEQUENCE SAME PATTERN REPEATED ON DIFFERENT SCALES MOTIVE a SHORT MELODIC PHRASE TAHT MAY BE EFFECTIVELY DEVELOPED THE SMALLEST FRAGMENT OF A THEM TAHT FORMS A MELODIE/RHYTHMIC MOVEMENT MOVEMENT A LARGE PART OF AN EVEN LARGER PART OF A COMPOSITION KINDS OF FORM BINARY FORM TERNERY FORM RONDO FORM DONATA THEME AND VARIATIONS BINARY FORM (AB) A FORM WITH TWO PARTS A - VERSE B - CHORUS/REFRAIN TERNERY FORM (ABA) A FORM WITH THREE PARTS A VERSE B CHORUS A VERSE (EXAMPLE) TWINKLE TWINKLE TWINKLE RONDO FORM THE RANDO THEME IS ALTERNATED WITH SOMETHING DIFFERENT RONDO THEME A B A C A D A TEMPO HOW FAST THE PIECE IS PLAYING MARKINGS CHANGE IN TEMPO MARKINGS LARGO - VERY SLOW ADAGIO - SLOW ANDANTE - WLAKING SPEED ALLEGRO - HAPPY/MODERATLY FAST CHANGE IN TEMPO ACCELLERADO - INCREASES GRADUALLY RITARDANDO - DECREASE (GRADUALLY SLOW DOWN) A TEMPO - GO BACK TO ORIGINAL SPEED RALLENTANDO - SAME AS TWO GRADUALLY SLOW DOWN DYNAMICS HOW LOUD OR SOFT THE MUSIC IS MARKINGS - PIANO PIONISSIMO PIANO - SOFT (P, PP,PPP) P PIANO PP PIANISSIMO PPP MEDIUM SOFT FORTE: LOUD - INF MEDIUM CHANGE IN DYNAMIC CRESSCENDO - GRADUALLY GET LOUDER DECRESCENDO - GRADUALLY GET SOFTER SFORZANO - HIT IT MELODY An arrangement of single tones in a meaningful sequence RANGE DISTANCE BETWEEN 1ST AND LAST NOTES OR THE LOUDNES OR SOFTNESS OF MUSIC PHRASE A small section of a composition comprising a musical thought. Comparable to a sentence in language CADENCE Closing of a phrase or section of music, COMPARABLE TO A COMMA RHYTHM ARRANGEMENT OF TIME IN MUSIC BEAT A REGULAR PHYSICAL MOVEMENT MEASURE DISTANCE BETWEEN EACH BAR METER GROUPING OR MEASURING OF BEATS, ORGANIZATION OF RHYTHM INTO STRONG AND WEEK PATTERNS ACCENT Stress of one tone over others, making it stand out; often it is the first beat of a measure SYNCOPATION a regularly accented beat is displaced onto an unaccented beat. HARMONY simultaneous sounding of two or more tones consonant with each other INTERVAL The distance between two tones SCALE A graduated series of tones arranged in a specified order OCTAVE Interval between two tones seven diatonic pitches apart; the lower note vibrates half as fast as the upper and sounds an octave lower. CHORD Simultaneous combination of three or more tones that constitute a single block of harmony. TONIC The first note of a scale (the tonic or keynote do), which serves as the home base around which the other pitches revolve and to which they ultimately gravitate. DIATONIC Melody or harmony built from the seven tones of a major or minor scale. A diatonic scale encompasses patterns of seven whole tones and semitones. CHROMATIC Melody or harmony built from many if not all twelve semitones of the octave. A chromatic scale consists of an ascending or descending sequence of semitones. DISSONANCE Combination of tones that sounds discordant and unstable, in need of resolution. polyphonic Two or more melodic lines combined into a multivoiced texture COUNTERPOINT The compositional art of combining two or more simultaneous melodic lines (polyphonic texture); term means "point against point" or "note against note." IMITATION a melodic idea is presented in one voice (or part), then restated in another while the first voice continues with new material. HOMOPHONIC Texture with principal melody and accompanying harmony MONOPHONIC Single-line texture, or melody without accompaniment. INVERSION upside-down image of a melody or pattern, found in fugues and twelve-tone compositions. RETROGRADE Backward statement of melody AUGMENTATION Statement of a melody in longer note values, often twice as slow as the original. DIMINUITION shortening of note values; the opposite of augmentation variation The manipulation of a theme by the use of melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic changes. THEME Melodic idea used as a basic building block in the construction of a composition. Also subject. SEQUENCE Restatement of an idea or motive at a different pitch level MOTIVE Short melodic or rhythmic idea; the smallest fragment of a theme that forms a melodic-harmonic-rhythmic unit. THEMATIC DEVELOPMENT Musical expansion of a theme by varying its melodic outline, harmony or rhythm. MOVEMENT Complete, self-contained part within a larger musical work. TEMPO Rate of speed or pace of music MARKINGS OF TEMPO common markings include: grave (solemn; very, very slow); largo (broad; very slow); adagio (quite slow); andante (a walking pace); moderato (moderate); allegro (fast; cheerful); vivace (lively); presto (very fast); accelerando (getting faster); ritardando (getting slower); a tempo (in time; returning to the original pace). ALLEGRO Fast, cheerful. DYNAMICS the degree of loudness or softness, or volume, of a sound. PITCH Highness or lowness of a tone, depending on the frequency (rate of vibration). TIMBRE The quality of a sound that distinguishes one voice or instrument from another. Also tone color SOPRANO Highest-ranged voice, normally possessed by women or boys. ALTO alto Lowest of the female voices. TENOR Male voice of high range. Also a part, often structural, in polyphony. BASS Male voice of low range TRILL Ornament consisting of the rapid alternation between one tone and the next above it. ARPEGGIO Broken chord in which the individual tones are sounded one after another instead of simultaneously. A CAPPELLA Choral music performed without instrumental accompaniment. CHAMBER MUSIC Ensemble music for up to about ten players, with one player to a part. KEY Defines the relationship of tones with a common center or tonic. Also a lever MODULATE The process of changing from one key to another. DOMINANT The fifth scale step, sol SONATA Instrumental genre in several movements for soloist or small ensemble. EXPOSITION Opening section CODA The last part of a piece, usually added to a standard form to bring it to a close. RECAPITULATION Third section of sonata-allegro form, in which the thematic material of the exposition is restated, generally in the tonic. Also restatement. STRING INSTRUMENTS VIOLIN VIOLA CELLO STRING BASS HARP WODDWINDS FLUTE PICCOLO CLAIRNET OBOE ENGLISH HORN BASSOON