Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/73

Click to flip

73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Form
What happens one after another
Repetition, Contrasts and Variation
Repititon = same again
Contrast = different
Variation = similar with some difference
Elements of form
Theme
Sequence
Motive
Movement
THEME
MAIN MELODY; MELODY THAT REOCCURS THROUGHOUT A SECTION, MOVEM,ENT, OR AN ENTIRE COMPOSITION.
SEQUENCE
SAME PATTERN REPEATED ON DIFFERENT SCALES
MOTIVE
a SHORT MELODIC PHRASE TAHT MAY BE EFFECTIVELY DEVELOPED

THE SMALLEST FRAGMENT OF A THEM TAHT FORMS A MELODIE/RHYTHMIC MOVEMENT
MOVEMENT
A LARGE PART OF AN EVEN LARGER PART OF A COMPOSITION
KINDS OF FORM
BINARY FORM
TERNERY FORM
RONDO FORM
DONATA
THEME AND VARIATIONS
BINARY FORM (AB)
A FORM WITH TWO PARTS

A - VERSE
B - CHORUS/REFRAIN
TERNERY FORM (ABA)
A FORM WITH THREE PARTS

A VERSE
B CHORUS
A VERSE

(EXAMPLE) TWINKLE TWINKLE TWINKLE
RONDO FORM
THE RANDO THEME IS ALTERNATED WITH SOMETHING DIFFERENT

RONDO THEME A B A C A D A
TEMPO
HOW FAST THE PIECE IS PLAYING

MARKINGS
CHANGE IN TEMPO
MARKINGS
LARGO - VERY SLOW
ADAGIO - SLOW
ANDANTE - WLAKING SPEED
ALLEGRO - HAPPY/MODERATLY FAST
CHANGE IN TEMPO
ACCELLERADO - INCREASES GRADUALLY
RITARDANDO - DECREASE (GRADUALLY SLOW DOWN)
A TEMPO - GO BACK TO ORIGINAL SPEED
RALLENTANDO - SAME AS TWO GRADUALLY SLOW DOWN
DYNAMICS
HOW LOUD OR SOFT THE MUSIC IS
MARKINGS - PIANO PIONISSIMO
PIANO - SOFT (P, PP,PPP)
P PIANO
PP PIANISSIMO
PPP MEDIUM SOFT

FORTE: LOUD - INF MEDIUM
CHANGE IN DYNAMIC
CRESSCENDO - GRADUALLY GET LOUDER
DECRESCENDO - GRADUALLY GET SOFTER
SFORZANO - HIT IT
MELODY
An arrangement of single tones in a meaningful sequence
RANGE
DISTANCE BETWEEN 1ST AND LAST NOTES OR THE LOUDNES OR SOFTNESS OF MUSIC
PHRASE
A small section of a composition comprising a musical thought. Comparable to a sentence in language
CADENCE
Closing of a phrase or section of music, COMPARABLE TO A COMMA
RHYTHM
ARRANGEMENT OF TIME IN MUSIC
BEAT
A REGULAR PHYSICAL MOVEMENT
MEASURE
DISTANCE BETWEEN EACH BAR
METER
GROUPING OR MEASURING OF BEATS, ORGANIZATION OF RHYTHM INTO STRONG AND WEEK PATTERNS
ACCENT
Stress of one tone over others, making it stand out; often it is the first beat of a measure
SYNCOPATION
a regularly accented beat is displaced onto an unaccented beat.
HARMONY
simultaneous sounding of two or more tones consonant with each other
INTERVAL
The distance between two tones
SCALE
A graduated series of tones arranged in a specified order
OCTAVE
Interval between two tones seven diatonic pitches apart; the lower note vibrates half as fast as the upper and sounds an octave lower.
CHORD
Simultaneous combination of three or more tones that constitute a single block of harmony.
TONIC
The first note of a scale (the tonic or keynote do), which serves as the home base around which the other pitches revolve and to which they ultimately gravitate.
DIATONIC
Melody or harmony built from the seven tones of a major or minor scale. A diatonic scale encompasses patterns of seven whole tones and semitones.
CHROMATIC
Melody or harmony built from many if not all twelve semitones of the octave. A chromatic scale consists of an ascending or descending sequence of semitones.
DISSONANCE
Combination of tones that sounds discordant and unstable, in need of resolution.
polyphonic
Two or more melodic lines combined into a multivoiced texture
COUNTERPOINT
The compositional art of combining two or more simultaneous melodic lines (polyphonic texture); term means "point against point" or "note against note."
IMITATION
a melodic idea is presented in one voice (or part), then restated in another while the first voice continues with new material.
HOMOPHONIC
Texture with principal melody and accompanying harmony
MONOPHONIC
Single-line texture, or melody without accompaniment.
INVERSION
upside-down image of a melody or pattern, found in fugues and twelve-tone compositions.
RETROGRADE
Backward statement of melody
AUGMENTATION
Statement of a melody in longer note values, often twice as slow as the original.
DIMINUITION
shortening of note values; the opposite of augmentation
variation
The manipulation of a theme by the use of melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic changes.
THEME
Melodic idea used as a basic building block in the construction of a composition. Also subject.
SEQUENCE
Restatement of an idea or motive at a different pitch level
MOTIVE
Short melodic or rhythmic idea; the smallest fragment of a theme that forms a melodic-harmonic-rhythmic unit.
THEMATIC DEVELOPMENT
Musical expansion of a theme by varying its melodic outline, harmony or rhythm.
MOVEMENT
Complete, self-contained part within a larger musical work.
TEMPO
Rate of speed or pace of music
MARKINGS OF TEMPO
common markings include: grave (solemn; very, very slow);
largo (broad; very slow); adagio (quite slow);
andante (a walking pace); moderato (moderate);
allegro (fast; cheerful); vivace (lively);
presto (very fast); accelerando (getting faster);
ritardando (getting slower); a tempo (in time; returning to the original pace).
ALLEGRO
Fast, cheerful.
DYNAMICS
the degree of loudness or softness, or volume, of a sound.
PITCH
Highness or lowness of a tone, depending on the frequency (rate of vibration).
TIMBRE
The quality of a sound that distinguishes one voice or instrument from another. Also tone color
SOPRANO
Highest-ranged voice, normally possessed by women or boys.
ALTO
alto Lowest of the female voices.
TENOR
Male voice of high range. Also a part, often structural, in polyphony.
BASS
Male voice of low range
TRILL
Ornament consisting of the rapid alternation between one tone and the next above it.
ARPEGGIO
Broken chord in which the individual tones are sounded one after another instead of simultaneously.
A CAPPELLA
Choral music performed without instrumental accompaniment.
CHAMBER MUSIC
Ensemble music for up to about ten players, with one player to a part.
KEY
Defines the relationship of tones with a common center or tonic. Also a lever
MODULATE
The process of changing from one key to another.
DOMINANT
The fifth scale step, sol
SONATA
Instrumental genre in several movements for soloist or small ensemble.
EXPOSITION
Opening section
CODA
The last part of a piece, usually added to a standard form to bring it to a close.
RECAPITULATION
Third section of sonata-allegro form, in which the thematic material of the exposition is restated, generally in the tonic. Also restatement.
STRING INSTRUMENTS
VIOLIN
VIOLA
CELLO
STRING
BASS HARP
WODDWINDS
FLUTE
PICCOLO
CLAIRNET
OBOE
ENGLISH HORN
BASSOON