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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
According to a 2002 census, Texas had more than _____ governmental units.
89,000
The jurisdictional structure of governments in this country is
complex and confusing
The three fundamental systems for structuring government are
confederation, federalism, and unitary
There is no such thing as
the sovereignty of local government in Texas.
The organization and operation of our federal system of government is a system
of many shared functions and responsibilities.
Within the U.S., the return of powers to the states is called
devolution.
Most official proceedings concerning our daily lives come from _____ governments.
state and local
The _____ clause in the U.S. Constitution implies that when there is a power struggle between the federal government and a state government, the federal government triumphs.
supremacy
The Tenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution contains the _____ powers clause.
reserved
The U.S. Constitution limits the powers of the state and national government through prohibitions called _____ powers
denied
The powers to tax, to borrow and coin money, and to declare war in the U.S. Constitution are called enumerated powers or _____ powers.
delegated
Because the writers of the Constitution foresaw the necessity to organize formal agreements between states, they provided for _____ compacts.
interstate
_____ are issues between the states that are often solved by U.S. Supreme Court decisions.
licensing fees that affect interstate banking, boundary disputes and tax jurisdiction
The U.S. Constitution provides for the return of a person accused of a crime to the state in which the crime was committed. This process between the states is called
extradition.
In virtually every area of public policy, governments must
coordinate, collaborate, and cooperate
An early example of dual federalism involved the Supreme Court’s decision in
McCulloch v. Maryland
Those supporting the development of cooperative federalism
embrace the concept that all three levels of government share authority over policy.
Over the past 50 years the federal government has used various devices to shape and implement domestic programs. The primary vehicle for this has been
categorical grants-in-aid.
Money supplied by the federal government as a categorical grant-in-aid is divided into two categories, _____ grants.
project and formula
A _____ grant requires a state or local government to submit an application for funds.
a. matching funds
project
One reason for the national government to use matching funds is so that the state and local governments
have a strong commitment to the funded program and its policy objectives.
President Richard Nixon advocated consolidating many categorical grants into _____ grants which allowed the states more _____ over the allocation of funds
block, discretion
President Nixon, in addition to calling for the consolidation of categorical grants, proposed replacing these programs with revenue sharing to
allow recipients to use the money as they saw fit.
President Carter, a former governor of Georgia, attempted
to expand the federal government’s role to assist local governments.
President Ronald Reagan ended revenue sharing to state and local governments
to reduce the federal budget deficit.
President Ronald Reagan was particularly critical of
welfare assistance
Presidents Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush both used executive orders and administrative initiatives to augment the discretionary powers of the states. These efforts were blunted somewhat through the efforts of both
the Congress and federal courts
In the past twenty years, Congress has
increased the number of mandates and preemptions forced on the states.
In 1990, Congress passed _____, which requires governments to make extensive and costly changes in public facilities
the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
Congress enacted a major welfare reform bill in 1996 that eliminated entitlements under Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) and replaced it with
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)
In 1996, in response to state courts upholding the legality of gay marriages, Congress passed the
Defense of Marriage Act.
After the events of 9/11, President George W. Bush endorsed the _____, which increased
government surveillance powers to investigate espionage and terrorism
USA PATRIOT ACT
The _____ courts have played a central role in defining power, authority, and jurisdiction in the federal system.
federal
The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in the case of United States v. Lopez that Congress had
overreached its constitutional power concerning interstate commerce
In Printz v. United States, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down provisions of the _____ requiring background checks on handgun purchases.
Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act
The U.S. Supreme Court required that the Virginia Military Institute (VMI)
permit women to attend
Of the fifty states ranked by per capita distribution of federal grants to state and local government, Texas ranks
near the bottom
Money from the federal government accounts for approximately _____ percent of the total Texas budget.
30
The Texas Office of State-Federal Relations lobbies the federal government for
additional programs, relief from mandates and adjustments in funding to our advantage.
Some state agencies and communities across the state have resisted taking federal dollars because of
the "strings" attached to grant programs
The problems and interests that Texas and Mexico share are called
transnational regionalism
The maquiladora program involved
twin plants in Mexico and the U.S.
One of the most significant changes in Mexican law resulting from the maquiladora program was
allowing 100 percent foreign ownership of assembly plants in Mexico.
In a maquiladora program, plants in _____ manufacture the parts of a product and plants in _____ assemble those parts into a finished product.
the U.S.; Mexico
In 1991, the U.S., Mexico and Canada negotiated the
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
The benefits to Texas from NAFTA are
unevenly distributed throughout the state
Groups disquieted by NAFTA policies include
U.S. labor unions, U.S. manufacturers, and Mexican Human Rights advocates.
Texas exported more than _____ billion dollars worth of goods to Mexico in 2008.
62
49. In addition to sharing a common border, the U.S. and Mexico must understand that they share
e. air and water pollution, industrial development and population growth along the border.
On the Texas side of the border there are more than 1,200 _____ – rural, unincorporated slums that have substandard housing, roads, and drainage and, in many cases, lack water and sewage systems.
colonias
A major factor in illegal immigration, according to the text, is
that it was legal to hire an illegal alien until 1986
The 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act provided amnesty to illegal immigrants who had moved to the U.S. prior to January 1,
1982.
Many Texas individuals and businesses rely on _____ for cheap labor.
illegals
Increased economic integration between Mexico and the U.S. is having an impact on concerns such as
infrastructure requirements, air pollution, and health care.