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73 Cards in this Set

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Used detailed observation of his own children to fevelop his theory of cognitive development.
Jean Piaget
Incorporating new information into already existing schemes
Assimilation
In Piaget's theory, what shapes the child's cognitive development
Experience and Biology
The 1st stage of development tha tlast from birth until 24 months of age
Sensorimotor stage
The understanding that objects and events continue to exist even when they cannot be seen, heard, or touched
Object permance
Researchers have found that babies understand the concept of casuality by the age of?
5 1/2 to 6 months
The focusing of mental resources on select information is called?
Attention
Researcher Andrew Meltzoff found that infants can imitate facial expression withing the first few days after birth and suggest that this is?
Biological faced
Juan is riding a bike. Riding a bike requires Juan to use to use his what?
Implicit Memory
Abraham describes to his friends what he did last summer on vacation he is relying on his
Explicit Memory
Explicit memory is to unconscious as
Explicit memory is to conscious
Develops in the 2nd year.
Explicit memory
What is the current proposed explanation for infantile amnesia?
Infants have immature prefronal lobes in the brain.
The most important early contributor to the developmental testing of infants is
Arnold Gesell
The Gesell test, used to asses normal and abnormal infants has four categories of behavior:
Language, adaptive, personal- social motor
The Babyley Scale of Infant Development is widely used assessment of infant development and has 3 components:
Mental scale, Motor scale, an dInfant Behavior Profile
Primarily measures the infants processing abilities
Fagan Test
Infants intelligance test results are not highly correlated w/ IQ in later childhood.
-
Cases like Wild Boy of Aveyron and Gentle cause us to wonder whether:
language, is due more to heredity or to environment.
A form of communication that is based on a system of symbols is called:
Language
Refers to the meaning of words and sentences
Semantics
Refers to the appropriate use of language in different contexts.
Pragmantics
Infants begin to say their 1st words b/t
10 to 15 months
Infants can comprehend language before they can what?
Produce language
Language appear to follow the same development patterns regardless of culture
Characterstics of human language
Three types of cries:
Basic, anger, and pain
Two types of smiles:
Reflexive- does not occur in response to stimuli

Social- response to stimuli
Three types of Temperament-
Easy- predictable, sleeping, eating patterns.

Difficult- Unpredictable eating, and sleeping

slow-to-warm- don't respond
Refers to the development pattern from the top down
Cephalocaudal pattern of development
The infant follows the developmental pattern:
the brain, followed by the spinal cord and then leg nerves
Inside out
Proxomidistal
The average american newborn is how many inches long and weighs how much?
20 inches long and 7 1/2 pounds
Most infants lose weight before they what?
Start to gain
Infants double their weight by what age?
4 months of age
Swelling and hemorrhaging of the brain due to shaking of the infant.
Shaken baby syndrome
By their second birthday, the brain is what?
Approx. 75 percent the weight of an adults brain
The case of Michael Rehbein showed what?
That the brain is very adaptive
Providing a stimulating home environment increase what?
The chances that children grow up to be intelligent
The acronym "SIDS" stands for what?
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
Fewer allergies
Appropriate weight gain
Improved visual acuity
Benefits of breast feeding
A mother should not breast feed when?
When she has an infectious disease
What is the mortality rate of bottle fed infants to breast fed infants?
5 time greater than of breast fed infants
The rediness approach to toliet training is based on waiting until the child shows signs of:
Being ready to toliet-train
Flings their arms and legs out from the body and then pulls them in tightly.
Moro reflex
The rooting reflex is to sucking as the
Moro reflex is the startle
Involve large muscle activity
Gross motor
Gross motor skills is to big movemnts as
fine motor skills is to small movements
Found that infants in the mitten group developed grasping skills earlier
Sticky mittens research project
The recieveing of information from the surrounding environment is called
Sensation
The interpreting of sensory information is
Perception
During his work with infants in the "looking chamber" discovered that both 2 day old infants & 2 to 3 yar old toddlers looked at faces longer than any other object.
Robert Franz
What is the most comforting thing to get a child to sleep?
singing to a child
The believe that infants do not experience pain, gave doctors reason to perform surgeries on ingants who had not been given anesthesia
-
Research has shown that infants do form preferences for:
Smell and taste
The emotional actions and reactions of a child's caregivers influence:
Neurological development
If an infant is raised in a neglectful environment and is not comforted or soothed during distress, the infant will MOST likely be delayed in
Regulation of emotions
Suggest that every time a parent gives attention to an infants crying, the infant will be rewarded for crying and cry more
Operant conditioning
Believes that parents should respond quickly to the cries of their babies bc a quick response will enhance the infant's sense of secure attachment
Mary Ainsworth
Which of the following occurse 1st in development?
Reflexive smiling
Children are more likely to show stronger anxiety if they
are not securely attached
Children can begin to regulate their emotions by what age?
Age1
Angela and Jason are going to have a child Statistically speaking their child
Easy Temperament
The idea that children have different temperament should lead parents to realize that
There is no single best way to raise all children
Harlow's study concluded that contact comfort is more important for attachment than feeding. What evidence was used to support this conclusion?
Baby monkeys spent more time with cloth surrogate mothers, regardless of whether the cloth mothers fed them.
How old do children have to be before they take into consideration the feelings of others before acting?
24 months
The following statement about reciprocal socialization is true?
Children socialize parents just as parents socialize children
The research on fathers as caregivers indicates what?
That fathers interact with their babies in different ways than mothers do, regardless of child parent is the primary caregiver
Research on infant behavior in stressful situations with a stranger present indicates that infants:
Turn more to their mothers for comfort
Fathers are more what with their children?
Physical
Currnetly, how many children recieve form, licensed childcare in the US?
2,000,000
Which of the following is generally true about child-care settings across the US, according to your text?
They vary widely in quality
Children in low quality child care are more what than children in high quality childcare
Aggressive
Most important in child care setting?
Having adults who know and care about child development and materials that faster positive growth.