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80 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define biological barrier
defense provided by cells on or in the body
Define Normal Microbiota
resident microbes that live on the body. ~100 trillion total
500-1000 different species
Microbiota provides protection by...
-outcompeting invaders
-creating toxins against invaders
-making local environment less hospitable.
2 divisions of immune system...
Non Specific
Non specific Immune system characteristics...(3 of them)
-many cells respond
-response is rapid
-target is general
Specific Immune system characteristics...(5 of them)
-fewer cells respond -target is specific -slower response -capable of memory - second time, response is stronger, faster, and longer lasting
Define phagocyte
White blood cells that protect by engulfing pathogens/toxins
Define macrophage
2-10% of WBC's
-not most numerous or quickest to respond
- "eat" the most of all WBC's
Define nutraphils
50-70% of all WBC's
- quick to respond, but do not "eat" as much
Define Eosinophils
1-4% of WBC's
-weakly phagocytic
-release toxins against some parasitic worms
Define basophils
less than 1% of WBC's
-role as phagocyte is unclear
-release histamine to enhance inflammation
What are the 5 steps in phagocytosis?
Define adherence
pathogen attaches to to surface of phagocyte
Define Engulfment
Phagocyte surrounds pathogen with parts of the PM. Pulls in pathogen, forming the phagosome.
Define phagolysosome
formed by combining phagosome and lysosome
Define Digestion (as in Phagocytosis)
enzymes from the lysosome break down the pathogen
Define exocytosis ( as in phagocytosis)
remains of the phagolysosme are expelled via exocytosis.
Natural Killer cells
small section of WBC's called lymphocytes that have non specific recognition. (Most lymphocytes are specific)
How do Natural Killer Cells work?
-recognize host cells that have been invaded by some viruses.
-secrete perforins that put holes in host cell that cause it to lyse
S&S of inflammatory response
heat, redness, pain and swelling
3 goals of inflammatory response
-create a barrier around the infection
-rid the area of damaged cells and toxin
-prepare site to be repaired
5 steps in inflammation
-Chemical alarm
-increased blood vessel permeability
-phagocyte mobilization
specific immune cells respond
define Chemical alarm
damaged cells release compounds such as histamine, kinins, and prostaglandins
define vasodilation
vessels dilate causing blood flow to increase
what is the order of phagocyte mobilization?
What is PUS?
accumulation of "battle casualties" such as dead cells, living cells, or pathogen
2 divisions of specific immune system...
-Humeral or Anti-body mediated Immunity
-Cell mediated immunity
What are antigens?
any compound that is foreign and stimulates the immune system
proteins tend to be the best antigens because they are the most complex
Define Epitope
small portion of an antigen that stimulated a specific response from the immune system
one large protein can have 7100 epitopes.
Humeral or antibody mediated response defends with what type of cells?
WBC's called B- Lymphocytes
or B cells
Where do B cells come from?
originate and mature in bone marrow.
B cells can have 10'000-100'000 receptors that each bind to 1 epitope of 1 antigen
How do b cells work?
They circulate and wait for the antigen to enter the body
how do B cells divide?
What are the 2 different types of clone B cells?
Plasma Cells and Memory B cells
Define plasma cell
Plasma cells make antibodies at the rate of ~200/sec
How long to plasma cells live?
4-5 days and then they die
Each clone plasma cell can bind to the same epitope as the original B cell
Define memory B cell
Long lasting cell that remembers the antigen for recognition if the pathogen enters the body again
Antibodies cannot enter host cells
in the blood
can enter the host cell
Cell mediated immunity uses what type of cells?
T-lymphocytes (T-cells)
Where do T cells originate?
T cells originate and mature in the bone marrow
T cells receptors detect...
-1 epitope of an antigen
-major histocompatability complex
Major Histocompatability complex
displayed on host cells that define it as "self"
MHC and the antigen must be present for T cell activation
how do T cells divide?
4 types of clone T cells...
-cytotoxic T cell
-Helper T cell
-suppressor T cell
-Memory T cell
Define cytotoxic T cell
kills invaded cell by.
-secreting perforins
-secrete lymphotoxin
-secrete tumor necrosis factor
Define selective toxicity
drug targets unique factor of pathogen
define natural drug
comes from a living organism
define synthetic drug
created in a lab
define semi-synthetic drugs
combination of natural and synthetic drugs
Define range and strength of effectiveness of drugs
broad v. narrow spectrum
cidal v. static
Theraputic Index
Toxic Dose/Theraputic dose

Higher TI= better drug
Define Mechanism of action
what does the drug target?
-cell wall
-protein synthesis
-inhibit nucleic acid synthesis
-structural analog
define structural analog
drug mimics a substrate required for pathogen growth
4 mechanisms of drug resistance
-block drug entry
-pump out drug once it enters
-destroy or inactivate the drug
-alter the pathway that the drug targets
Virus is "non living" because...
-acellular structure
-no ribosome, flagella, ER...etc
-DNA or RNA...never both
-inability to replicate outside of host cell
what size is a virus?
2 mandatory viral structures
nucleic acid core and Capsid
Define capsid
protein coat around the nucleic acid. Capsid protein can self assemble.
3 common capsid shapes
-complex capsid
Helical capsid structure...
hollow tube
Icosahedral capsid structure...
roughly spherical
complex capsid structure...
combination of helical and complex
how many genes do viruses have?
small have 3-4 genes
large have > 100 genes
Define envelope
additional layer of plasma membrane outside of capsid. Not present in all viruses.
steps in viral replication cycle
-penetration and uncoding
-nucleocapsid assembly
-exit mechanism
define adsorbtion
virus uses a protein to bind to host cell
define penetration and encoding
viruse enters host cell and releases nucleic acid into cell
Define naked virus entry
only nucleic acid is enters host cell.
define fusion
for enveloped viruses only. envelope binds with cell and capsid enters cell and releases Nucleic acid
Receptor mediated endocytosis
spikes stimulate host cell to engulf virus by endocytosis.
virus uses mechanisms and energy of the host cell to replicate.
Nucleocapsid assembly
capsid proteins self assemble around nucleic acid
Exit mechanisms of virus
-Lysis of host cell
-Budding (pushes out on PM and pinches off a piece of the PM )