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154 Cards in this Set

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Projective identification Klein
when a person inserts the self (in part or whole) into the object in order to possess or control the object.
confirmation bias
The tendency to believe and pay attention to experiences that support our views and ignore experiences that discredit them.
Job enrichment
found to result in less absenteeism, tardiness, and turnover, increased job satisfaction, and increased job performance, especially in terms of work quality for some employees.
Elaboration Likelihood Model
peripheral route most likely when: listener is uninvolved with the message/distracted, the communicator is appealing, and/or the message appeals to fear. More likely channel of communication is central route with multiple sources.
To construct the confidence interval for an obtained test score, you would need the examinee's score and:
the standard error of estimate
paralanguage
vocal cues (other than language itself - e.g., silence, rate of speech) that communicate meaning.
performance IQ begins to decline when?
mid 20s
job relatedness and business necessity have to do with
adverse impact
service utilization related to sexual orientation
gay men and lesbian women are more likely to see a tx than heterosexual men and women
overlearning is most effective...
when it is spaced and the info is specific and concrete
ex post facto research
when the IV cannot be manipulated because it has already been applied. a.k.a."quasi-experimental" or descriptive research.
Hiskey-Nebraska test
used to assess IQ of deaf and hard-of-hearing children aged 3 to 16
overjustification hypothesis
external rewards lead to a decrease in intrinsic interest
Prospective memory
the ability to remember to perform an intended action at a particular point of time in the future
Tourette Syndrome, Autistic Disorder, and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder have been linked to pathology in which areas of the brain
basal ganglia and frontal lobes
kappa statistic
used to measure reliability when data are nominal or ordinal ( not continuous)
Flashbulb memories are attributable to...
The amygdala (part of the limbic system)
Preferences for members of own racial/ethnic group and gender appear at what ages?
-preferences for same ethnic/racial group at 4
-preferences for same gender by 5
lower rates of tardive dyskinesia in pts taking atypical antipsychotics is due to...
lower affinity for D(2) receptors.
Cross' stages of Black Identity Development
pre-encounter, encounter, immersion-emersion, and internalization
Two aspects of Metacognition
self-appraisal: understanding of own cognitive processes
self-management: control
The left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex have been linked to
verbal and non-verbal working memory
emotional contagion
first sign of empathy (in first few weeks of life) when babies cry at sound of another baby crying
Group polarization
when a person makes a more extreme decision in a group than he/she would have made alone.
anticholinergic effects
drugs that block Ach produce dry mouth, blurred vision, sedation, tachycardia
cocaine
blocks the reuptake of dopamine
masked depression
depression can magnify pre-existing pain
Minority service utilization
in terms of population proportions, Hispanic- and Asian-Americans underutilize mental health services, while African-Americans overutilize them.
state licensing boards
set entry level qualifications for licensure and monitor conduct
ADHD most consistently linked to
Reduced blood flow to the frontal lobes (hypofrontalilty) is one of the brain abnormalities linked to ADHD. Ritalin increases blood flow to this area of the brain.
job evaluation
determine the relative worth of a job compared to other jobs
sexual prejudice
should replace homophobia (Herek) "negative attitudes based on sexual orientation
patient characteristic most consistently linked to tx outcome
IQ
Others: educational level, ego strength, anxiety tolerance, attractiveness, and client participation.
exposure to lead causes:
decrements in overall IQ as well as deficits on measures of auditory and speech processing and attention.
trend analysis
Trend analysis is used to determine the nature of the relationship between a quantitative IV and a DV. It will show if there is a significant linear, quadratic, cubic, or quartic trend.
infant perception
- children achieve 20/20 vision between 6 and 12 months of age, but some say it develops even later.
-Sensitivity to pictorial depth cues develops at about 6 months of age.
- preference for facial patterns over other visual patterns is apparent by two to three months of age, although there is some evidence that it may occur as early as 9 minutes of age.
- discrim b/n happy/angry faces, etc appears at about 7 months of age.
infant sleep patterns
Only 2 distinct sleep patterns: REM and NREM (quiet) sleep
-in the first few months, the sleep period begins with REM sleep.
hormones and sexual arousal
androgen is responsible for arousal in both females and males
method of loci and other mnemonics are best for
remembering information that is not inherently meaningful
korsakoff's includes damage to
mammillary bodies and some damage to the thalamus
Huntington's is likely to show atrophy in which area?
caudate nucleus
Patterson's adolescent delinquency theory
Patterson's model is consistent with a social learning approach (i.e., impact of modeling/imitation and reinforcement).
therapists tend to over or under predict violence?
overpredict (false positives)
antidepressant meds for pain mgt
antidepressants that affect levels of both norepinephrine and serotonin are most effective for reducing chronic pain
Kuder-Richardson Formula 20
-method for assessing internal consistency
- like other methods of internal consistency,produces an artificially high coefficient for speeded tests.
maternal employment during 1st 3 yrs of life
a small negative affect on the child's cognitive functioning but no consistent effects on emotional or behavioral development
differential reinforcement
reducing an undesirable behavior by providing a reinforcer after each specified interval of time that the individual does not engage in that behavior but, instead, engages in other behaviors.
tranference (according to Jung)
is projection
A person with Korsakoff's will have more impairments in explicit or implicit memory?
They will display greater impairment in explicit memory (memory that requires conscious recollection) than implicit memory (memory that is automatic).
A predictor is best for increasing decision-making accuracy (i.e., has good incremental validity) when...
there is a low selection ratio and a moderate base rate.
matching law
the proportion of responses will match the proportion of reinforcements when using concurrent schedules of reinforcement
According to Tiedeman and O'Hara
achieving a healthy vocational identity involves both becoming part of a career field (integration) and retaining one's uniqueness (differentiation).
sleep terror disorder
usually begins in childhood (between 4 and 12) and spontaneously remits in adolescence
to treat tardive dyskinesia
drug that decreases dopamine or one that increases GABA
somatosensory cortex is located in the?
parietal lobe
best tx outcomes for which group?
Hispanic Am
then EAs
Asian Am
African Am
Best tx for Native Am?
collaborative, non-directive, includes family/tribe
Secondary prevention
Aimed at specific individuals who have been identified as being at high-risk. Always involves some kind of screening process to identify individuals.
primary prevention
aimed at a group/population rather than individuals
for alleviating agoraphobia
in vivo exposure is essential component of tx
infant mortality rate
has decreased over the past 3 decades, but the proportion of infant deaths caused by congenital malformations has increased
actuarial predictions
as good as or better than clinical predictions
infants first exhibit recognition memory for up to 24 hours following presentation of a stimulus
at 3 mos of age
response cost is
...a type of negative punishment. It involves removing a specific stimulus following a behavior in order to decrease that behavior (e.g., taking away points, removing privileges)
Ebbinghaus
rote learning of nonsense syllables leads to rapid forgetting
apraxia
the inability to perform a motor act (e.g., to wave "hello")
damage to parietal lobe
is associated with a number of abnormalities in movement and sensation including various types of apraxia
phobias of all kinds
are more common in younger adults than older adults
habituation
a decrease in response strength that occurs as the result of repeated stimulation. It is considered the simplest type of learning.
confidentiality and NGRI
When pleading NGRI, a person relinquishes his/her legal privilege.
administration of yeast RNA
improves memory in older adults (senile)
best time to begin toilet training
20-24 mos
cluster of protective factors for at-risk children
a consistent relationship with a parent or grandparent or sibling, etc most consistently linked to resilience
goal setting theory
A combination of specific goals with performance feedback is the optimal situation for both groups and individuals
according to adolph stern (1st psychoanalyst to provide a description of a borderline pt), the primary feature of bpd is
narcissism
early temperament and adjustment at age 21
temperament is predictive of beh for kids classified as undercontrolled, inhibited, or well-adjusted at 3
most frequent presenting problem for gay and lesbian clients
isolation
prosopagnosia
inability to recognize familiar faces (may be able to recognize via other cues..voice clothing, etc
color blindness
the gene for color blindness is carried on the X chromosome - and would have to come from the mother's side of the family
suicide rates for males aged 15-19
For those aged 15 through 19, the highest suicide rate for both males and females is for Native Americans
horizontal decolage
Piaget uses this term to describe the gradual development that occurs within a stage
active ingredient of systematic desensitization
classical extinction (exposure to cs without us)
panic d/o in kids
Panic d/o in kids is uncommon, but it does occur. It may be overlooked due to comorbidity with other d/os including disruptive behavior disorders, mood disorders, and other anxiety disorders.
Pseudocyesis
type of somatoform d/o nos in which female believes (and has physical signs) she is pregnant despite confirmation she is not
Nathan Ackerman
pioneer in assessment and treatment with families and the first to integrate the psychoanalytic approach with a systems approach in working with families.
alcohol use among pregnant women
Structural or physical abnormalities are most likely to occur when a pregnant woman consumes alcohol during the first trimester. Alcohol use in the second and third trimesters is linked more with behavioral and emotional concerns
Autistic children obtain the lowest scores on which WISC-IV subtests?
Coding, Symbol Search, and Comprehension
deindividuation
tendency to act in atypical ways when anonymity is likely. accounts for lowered sense of responsibility, less self-consciousness, a decreased fear of evaluation.
overextension
applying a word to a wider collection of objects or events than is appropriate (all vehicles are cars)
Most effective meds for atypical depression (increased sleep and appetite,phobic sx, mood reactivity, fatigue)
MAOIs and SSRIs
negative reinforcement
behavior increases because a stimulus is removed when one performs that behavior
mmpi-a
appropriate for children ages 14-18 with 6th grade readeing level or better
internal validity
the ability to figure out whether an observed difference between groups is due to the IV or to error.
split self syndrome
result of accepting negative racial messages. For AAs it might result in evaluating self against the white standard
biodata
said to be second to iq in terms of effective predictors. however, other predictors have been found to be better predictors of actual job performance for certain types of jobs. more research is needed
Edgar Schein
said that organizational culture acts as a defense mechanism that helps members avoid anxiety
symmetrical communication
-equality between the partners. Can lead to symmetrical escalation (conflict/competitiveness) when one partner tries to outdo the other.
spinal cord injury below the 1st thoracic vertebra
paraplegia (above the TV = quadraplegia)
unilateral vs bilateral ect
Right unilateral ECT produces less retrograde and anterograde amnesia for both verbal and nonverbal tasks than bilateral ect
Bipolar I versus II
Bipolar II Disorder differs from Bipolar I Disorder in that it does not include Manic or Mixed Episodes.
Structured Learning Therapy is a behavioral treatment found to be effective for depression that focuses on...
social skills training
For Vygotsky, symbolic play provides
a 'zone of proximal development' which allows a child to practice behaviors in a situation that requires less accuracy than would be required in reality.
self-reference processing (levels of processing model)
The levels of processing model used to have three levels – phonetic, acoustic, and semantic. But, it has been discovered that self-reference processing led to significantly more recall than semantic processing, which has traditionally been considered the deepest form of information processing.
By raising the predictor cutoff,
all positives (true and false) are decreased and all negatives (true and false) are increased
The three phases of the general adaptation syndrome (Hans Selye) or the body's physiological reaction to prolonged stress
alarm, resistance, exhaustion
relationship between therapy duration and therapy outcome
improvement in sx is greater during the early sessions of therapy than during the later sessions
Adverse impact can be the result of...
differential validity and unfairness (when the validity coefficients and criterion performance for two groups are similar but members of the groups perform differently on the predictor).
illusory correlation
The tendency to see a connection when there is none
Anorexia is linked to
higher than normal levels of seratonin
long term potentiation occurs
in the hippocampus
infant's basic temperament at six months of age and later aggressiveness
children with a difficult temperament have worse outcomes than those with an easy temperament, particularly when parents have an authoritarian parenting style.
Reciprocal inhibition (aka counterconditioning)involves
classical conditioning to replace an undesirable response with an incompatible response.
contrast effect
the tendency for a interviewer to rate someone more positively if they are interviewed just after an underqualified person (and vice versa)
Griggs vs. Duke Power Company
Court case (1971) impacting testing in the workplace -- measures of broad abilities cannot be used to make decisions for hiring and promotion
negative information bias
the tendency for one or two negative pieces of information to negate strenths or accomplishments
critical period
if certain developmental events don't happen during a specific time, later aspects of development will not occur.
sensitive period
optimal period rather than a necessary period.
delirium vs psychosis
the symptoms of delirium tend to be random while the symptoms of psychotic disorders are usually systematized
cohesiveness and productivity
high management support is linked with high levels of productivity for cohesive groups
management hostility is linked with low productivity for cohesive groups
grand mal seizure
tonic clonic epilepsy
adhd is a consequence of
an inability to regulate attention (problems inhibiting attention to nonrelevant stimuli and focusing too intensely on certain stimuli to the exclusion of others)
premack principle
the more frequent behavior is made contingent on the less frequent behavior in order to increase the less frequent behavior.
alzheimer's
begins with anterograde amnesia (the inability to form new memories). The anterograde amnesia worsens and, over time, the individual also exhibits retrograde amnesia.
bender gestalt tests what type of brain damage?
The Bender-Gestalt was originally developed as a test of visual/perceptual skills which are controlled by the right hemisphere in most people.
recovery following head trauma
Orientation to personal information is recovered first, then place, and then time
The Latin Square
-a type of within-subjects design in which the order of the different levels of the independent variable(s) are applied to different subjects or subgroups in a different order.
'p'
In the context of test construction, "p" indicates item difficulty and is calculated by dividing the total number of examinees who answered the item correctly by the total number of examinees.
-A low p value indicates a difficult item.
children with otitis media
score lower on verbal comprehension on the wisc
drug for enuresis
tricyclics
gay versus lesbian identity development
the onset of identity confusion, identity assumption, and identity commitment is somewhat earlier for males
adler
people are motivated primarily by the need to belong, however, this need may be misdirected into one of four goals -- attention, power, revenge, or to display inadequacy.
drugs for premature ejaculation
SSRIs
Rutter's indicators for psychopathology
low SES, large family size, paternal criminality, parental marital discord, maternal psychiatric disorder, and being placed in foster care
kappa coefficient
measure of interrater reliability
Bem's self-perception theory
According to Bem, people infer their own attitudes/emotions from their behaviors
associative visual agnosia
when one recognizes a familiar object but is unable to name it
-visual and language areas become disconnected.
flooding
-In vivo exposure with response prevention
-classical extinction
assessment centers
used for hiring, promotion AND training
what percent of people with Panic Disorder also have Agoraphobia?
33-50%
structural abnormalities in schiz
most commom: enlarged ventricles (15-30%)
Also, smaller than normal hypocampus and amygdala
gender and depression
equally common in boys and girls, 2x more common in female adolescents and adults compared to males
Schiz in developing versus industrialized countries
patients from developing countries: more likely to exhibit an acute onset of symptoms, a shorter clinical course, and a complete remission of symptoms. Age, gender, and symptom profile did not differ in consistent ways.
memory impairment in depression vs dementia
*recall memory more affected than recognition in dep
*recall and recognition both affected in dementia (esp cortical dementias)
mahler
1st month: *normal autism* - oblivious to environ
2-3 months: *normal symbiosis - fused w/mom (no diff b/n I and not I
4 mos - 3 yrs: *separation individuation*
separation anx: conflict b/n dependence and independence
by 3 yrs: *object constancy* permanent sense of self and obj
-psychopathology result of probs in SI phase
Jung
-collective and personal uncons
-personality devs throughout lifespan (most growth after 30)
-individuation: integration of uncons and cons leads to dev of unique identity - outcome is wisdom
-transference: PROJECTION (of uncons)
-emph healthy aspects of personality
dreamwork (and transference) key components
Adler
-disagreed with emph of uncons
-emph social factors
-teleological app (beh determined by future goals)
-needs for inferiority learned & superiority innate
-ways person compensates/achieves det style of life
healthy: goals are optimistic & contrib to welfare of oths
unhealthy (mistaken): self-centeredness, competitive, power
Pampered kids: don't dev social feelings
Neglected: need for revenge
-Lifestyle investigation
-dreams: rehearsals of future courses of act/info re: lifestyles
-Systematic Training for Eff Teaching: Beh is purposeful: attention, power, revenge, display deficiency - all reflect need to belong (faulty beliefs re: what is needed to belong)
gestalt (perls)
-ppl seek closure
-gestalts reflect current needs
-personality: self (creative/promotes SA) and self-image (darker side/external standards)
path: abandon self for self-im > lack of integrat
Neurosis: boundary probs (introjection,projection,retroflection,confluence)
-if transference: help see discrep b/n transference/fantasy and reality
dreams: rep parts of self not accepted
TX: contact,awareness,experimentation
-not focus on past/here&now (empty chair)
existential
emph human conds: depersonalization, loneliness, isolation
Maladapt beh: part of human cond
-Rel b/n C/T most imp
paradoxical intention: have C focus on feared sit in exagg/humorous way
reality therapy (Glasser)
4 needs: belonging, power, freedom, fun
1 physical need: survival
Success identity: fufill needs in responsible way (not infringe on rights of oths to fulfill needs)
Failure Identity: underlies most mental disturb
TX: identify ways to sat needs and dev success identity
-rejects medical model
-tranference detrimental
-emphasizes value judgements and current beh
solution focused (de Shazar)
- you get more of what you talk about
-focus on solutions/not probs
-Therapist is consultant
-Miracle Q, Exception Q, Scaling Q
Motivational interviewing
derived from Rogers and Bandura (self-efficacy) in addition to transtheoretical model
relationship between job satisfaction and performance?
Correlations between job satisfaction and performance are usually positive but small.
Job satisfaction is...
a relatively stable trait and is minimally affected by job changes
The compressed workweek...
has positive effects on supervisor ratings of employee performance, employee overall job satisfaction, and employee satisfaction with the work schedule, with the effects being strongest for employee attitudes
-least impact on objective measures of job performance