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29 Cards in this Set

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How long before most anti-depressants become effective?
2-3 weeks, though some may take up to 6 weeks to exert full effect
Imipramine (tofranil), clomipramine (anafranil), and amitryptaline (elavil) are all antidepressants of this type
tricyclics
Tricyclics are particularly effective in treating what type of depressive symptoms, and what other symptoms?
vegetative depressive symptoms, as well as panic attacks, agoraphobia, and obsessions, chronic pain, binging & purging, and enuresis
Which antidepressants carry a risk of death if overdosed?
tricyclics & MAOIs
Prozac, Paxil, and Zoloft are among the _____ class of antidepressants?
SSRIs
SSRIs are effective in treating what in addition to depression?
OCD, binge eating, and anxiety disorders.
SSRIs have a warning label since 2004. Why?
increased risk of suicidal thinking and bx in children and adolescents.
What’s the main reason MAOIs aren’t prescribed often?
side effect of potentially fatal hypertensive crisis when taken with foods containing high levels of the amino acid tyramine
Effexor (Venlafaxine) and Cymbalta (Duloxetine) are not SSRI’s, rather, they’re ______, and increase the levels of which neurotransmitters at the synapse?
SSNRIs, serotonin & norepinephrine
Serzone (nefazadone) and Desyrel (trazadone) are what kind of antidepressant?
serotonin-2 antagonist and reuptake inhibitors
Remeron (Mirtazipine) is what kind of antidepressant, and is effective for treating depression accompanied by what?
tetracyclic, esp effective in treating depression with anxiety or sleep problems, and chronic pain.
Wellbutrin, Zyban (buproprion) is prescribed for _____, ______, _______
depression, smoking cessation, and ADHD
Strattera (atomoxetine) is a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI) that’s prescribed for ______ as well as _______
depression as well as ADHD.
One side effect of lithium is tremor which occurs in about ____% of patients, mostly affecting ______
35% of pxs, affecting the fingers.
Too high a dose of lithium can be toxic, leading to symptoms including
diarrhea, tremor, ataxia, seizures, coma, death.
Traditional or conventional antipsychotics work by…?
blocking dopamine receptors
Thorazine, haldol, mellaril, and prolixin are all examples of
traditional/conventional antipsychotics
Conventional antipsychotics are best used in treating?
positive symptoms of schizophrenia
Atypical antipsychotics advantages are…
it treats both positive and negative symptoms and no extrapyramidal side effects, e.g., no tardive dyskinesia.
Tardive dyskinesia usually shows up at least ___ months after commencing with ______
6 months, traditional antipsychotics
One of the most serious (and potentially fatal) side effects of both traditional and atypical antipsychotics is _____?
NMS (neuroleptic malignant syndrome) with symptoms including muscle rigidity, high fever, sweating, stupor, unstable blood pressure
Valium (diazepam), Xanax (alprazolam), Klonopin (clonazepam), Ativan (lorazepam), and Halcion (triazolam) are all from this class of drugs
benodiazepines (antianxiety)
Benzo’s work by
enhancing activity of GABA
What’s the fatal danger in benzo’s?
mixing a benzo with alcohol or some other CNS depressant can be fatal
Barbituates used to be used to treat ______ but it’s rarer now because _____
anxiety, they’re addictive and are the drug of choice for suicide (by overdosing). Barbituates + alcohol = REALLY dangerous for lethality
Beta-blockers are great for _____?
anxiety, particularly related to public speaking or performance anxiety.
What meds are used to treat ADHD?
Psychostimulants including Ritalin (methylphenidate) and Cylert (pemoline)
What class of antidepressants can have anticholinergic side effects?
Tricyclics
Remeron (Mirtazipine)'s side effects
1) drowsiness
2) weight gain

(doesn't have anticholinergic SE's of other anti-depressants b/c of it's unique tetracyclic structure)