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109 Cards in this Set

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Hypothesis (Scientific Method)
(definition and steps)
explanation formulated to answer a question being asked or investigated
Step 1: Identify the problem
Step 2: Ask questions
Step 3: Formulate a hypothesis - make predictions, avoid elements which could be erroneously interpreted
Data Collection (Scientific Method)
(definition and steps)
gathering of data to answer original question and perhaps to create new questions
Step 1: Observation
Step 2: Measurement
Step 3: Samples - representative population
Step 4: Organization - perhaps including tables and charts
Experimentation (Scientific Method)
Comparing control and experimental group (different by one variable)

Methods must be adequately and thoroughly described to avoid misunderstandings
Analysis (Scientific Method)
Determine whether or not the data is reliable

Whether or not it supports the hypothesis
Conclusion (Scientific Method)
Final step- purpose of the scientific method/process
Deductive Reasoning
conclusions following from general principles
Inductive Reasoning
method of arriving at general principles from specific facts
Anatomy
study of the structure of the body systems
Physiology
study of the function of the organs and body systems
Hierarchial structure of the human body
Atoms
Molecules
Cells
Tissues
Organs
Organ Systems
Organism
Epithelial tissue (functions and classification)
provides covering - i.e., skin
produces secretions - i.e., glandular tissue

classified by number of cell layers and cell shape
cell layers: simple or stratified
shape: squamous, cuboidal, and columnar
Epithelial tissue (shapes)
squamous
cuboidal
columnar
Epithelial tissue (cell layers)
Simple - one layer of cells - found in body structures where absorption, secretion and filtration occur

Stratified - epithelium more than one layer - protection
Connective tissue (where and types?)
throughout the body

bone, cartilage, adipose, and blood vessel
Muscle tissue (function and types)
function - movement

types - skeletal, smooth, cardiac
Muscle tissue (where?)
skeletal - attached to bone - voluntary movement

smooth - involuntary - walls of hollow organs (intestines, uterus, blood vessels, bladder)
Nervous tissue (where?)
brain, spinal cord, nerves
Nervous tissue (nerves - purpose, what protects them)
made of specialized cells called neurons that send electrical impulses throughout the body

myelin protects
Circulatory system (organs?, function)
heart,
blood vessels - arteries, veins, arterioles
blood

supports circulation and distribution of various substances throughout the body - oxygen, nutrients, hormones
Circulatory system (relationships)
endocrine system - hormones influence blood pressure

urinary - regulates blood volume and pressure

nervous system - controls blood pressure, heart rate, and distribution of blood

estrogen helps to preserve vascular health

integumentary - allows heat to escape - dilating blood vessels

blood cells are formed in the marrow of the skeletal system
Digestive system (organs from start to finish :) )
mouth/teeth - begins breakdown of food, saliva contains enzymes

esophagus - transports food from mouth to stomach

stomach -

small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) - absorption of nutrients

large intestines

rectum

anus
Endocrine system (function)
controls body functions

glands secrete hormones to regulate body processes
Endocrine system (organs)
pineal, pituitary, thalamus, hypothalamus, thryroid, thymus and adrenal glands
- regulate growth, metabolism

pancreas, testis, ovaries also have endocrine functions
Endocrine system (related systems)
lymphatic system - transport for some hormones

muscular system - provides protection for some endocrine glands

nervous system - controls the secretion of hormones from the pituitary gland
Integumentary system (organs)
skin, mucous membranes, hair, nails
Integumentary system (function)
protects internal tissues from damage, waterproofs the body, aids in temperature regulation

also serves as a barrier to pathogens
Integumentary system (related systems)
respiratory and digestive - provide oxygen and nutrients

circulatory - nutrients and oxygen transported to integumentary system

lymphatic system - picks up excess fluid from the skin to avoid swelling

skeletal system - provides shape and support

endocrine - hormones regulate hair growth and hydration

skin protects internal organs

muscular system - generates heat which the skin expels

urinary system - activates vitamin D

nervous system - regulates the production of sweat, interprets stimuli, adjusts diameter of blood vessels in the skin
Lymphatic system (organs)
lymph nodes, lymph vessels (carry lymph), spleen, thymus, tonsils (lymphoid tissue)
Lymph vessels (function)
carry lymph - clear fluid rich in antibodies
Lymphatic system (function)
supports immune system by housing and transporting white blood cells to and from the lymph nodes

also returns any fluid that has leaked from the cardiovascular system back to the blood vessels
Lymphatic system (related systems)
urinary system - helps with the proper lymphatic functioning by helping to maintain proper water/acid-base/electrolyte balance of the blood

brain helps control the immune response

acidic secretions in both the reproductive and integumentary systems prevent bacterial growth
Muscular system (organs)
skeletal muscles, tendons (connect muscles to bones), ligaments (attach bones together to form joints)

NOT smooth or cardiac muscle
Muscular system (function)
Locomotion
Muscular system (related systems)
endocrine - releases hormones that effect muscular strength

nervous - regulates and coordinates muscle activity

reproductive - encourages larger muscle size in men

bones - levers for activity
Nervous system (organs)
brain, spinal cord, nerves
Nervous system (function)
body's control system

detection of stimuli - internal and external

defense - muscles or glands respond to threats
Nervous system (related systems)
endocrine system - releases hormones that regulate the activity of neurons

urinary system - disposes of metabolic wastes and maintains the correct electrolyte balance for proper nerve function
Reproductive system (organs)
testes, ovaries, penis, ovaries, vagina, breasts, uterus
Reproductive system (function)
to produce offspring

production of eggs (ova) or sperm

houses hormones - libido, agression, masculine/feminine body traits
Reproductive system (related systems)
lymphatic - transports sex hormones

muscular - childbirth

respiratory rate - increases during pregnancy
Respiratory system (organs)
nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs

lungs contain alveoli - air sacs - oxygen and carbon dioxide transported in and out of lungs via small blood vessels called arterioles
Respiratory system (function)
supply body (cells) with oxygen, removed carbon dioxide
Respiratory system (related systems)
muscular system - aids in breathing by producing vloume changes (the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles)

nervous system - regulates breathing rate and depth
Skeletal system (organs)
bones, ligaments, joints, cartilage
Skeletal system (function)
support and protection

in conjunction with muscular system - movement

storage of minerals such as calcium
Skeletal system (related systems)
endocrine - releases hormones that regulate growth and release of calcium

digestive system provides nutrients necessary for the mineralization of bones

urinary - activates vitamin D - necessary for calcium absorption into bone

muscular system - stress on bones - calcium deposit

nervous - recognizes painful sensations

cardiovascular - supplies oxygen and nutrients while removing wastes such as lactic acid

reproductive system - influences shape

integumentary system - provides vitamin D - calcium absorption
Urinary system (function)
excretory system - maintain water and electrolyte balance, regulates the acid-base balance of the blood and removes all nitrogen-containing wastes from the body

nitrogen - by-product of breakdown of proteins and nucleic acids
Urinary system (related systems)
endocrine - helps regulate the reabsorption of water and electrolytes in the kidneys

liver (digestive) - synthesized urea that must be excreted by kidneys
Urinary system (organs)
kidney, bladder, ureter, urethra
Anatomical position
standard position

body facing forward, feet parallel, arms at sides, palms forward
Superior
toward upper end of body or body structure
Inferior
toward lower end of body or body structure
Anterior
toward the front of the body or body structure (opposite posterior)
Posterior
toward the back of the body or body structure (opposite anterior)
Medial
toward the middle of body or body structure (opposite lateral)
Lateral
toward the outer sides of the body or body structure (opposite medial)
Intermediate
between medial and lateral
Proximal
close to the origin of the body part or point of attachment (opposite distal)
Distal
away from the origin of the body part or point of attachment (opposite of proximal)
Superficial
toward or at the body surface
Deep
away from or below the body surface (opposite of superficial)
Sagittal section
cut made along a longitudinal plane dividing the body into right and left parts
Midsagittal section
sagittal section made down the median of the body
Transverse section (cross section)
cut made along a horizontal plane that divides the body into upper and lower regions
Frontal section (coronal section)
cut made along a longitudinal plane that divides the body into front and back regions
Dorsal body cavity
contains the cranial cavity and spinal column
Ventral body cavity
contains all the sturcutres within the chest and abdomen; diaphragm divides the ventral cavity into the thoracic cavity (superior to the diaphragm); below the diaphragm are the abdominal and pelvic cavities
Adaptation
receive, interpret, and respond to internal and external stimuli via the nervous system
Circulation
transport oxygen and other nutrients to tissues via the cardiovascular system
Elimination
remove metabolic wastes from the body via the renal system
Locomotion
allow voluntary and involuntary movement of body via the renal system
Nutrition
take in and break down nutrients to be used for metabolism via the digestive system
Oxygenation
take in oxygen and expel carbon dioxide via the respiratory system
Regulation
hormonal control of the body functions via the endocrine system
Self-duplication
production of offspring via the reproductive system
Heart
contracts and pumps blood throughout the body - rhythmic contractions of the heart enable blood to be transported throughout the body
Arteries
blood vessels that transport blood away from the heart to the capillaries
Capillaries
tiny blood vessels that transport blood from the arteries to veins within the body - also serve as the location for exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide, fluid and other nutrients
Heart anatomy
four chambers:
right and left atriums
right and left ventricles
four valves:
tricuspid and pulmonary on the right
mitral and the aortic on the left
Flow of blood through heart
Deoxygenated blood enters the heart through the superior and inferior vena cava

travels to the right atrium, tot he tricuspid valve of the right ventricle

blood pushed through the pulmonary valve into the pulmonary artery and lungs and picks up oxygen

oxygenated blood is then carried back to the heard (by the pulmonary veins) into the left atrium through the mitral valve and into the left ventricle

contraction of the left ventricle forces blood through the aortic valve, through the aorta and out into the entire body
Lungs
inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide
Trachea
air brought from nose/mouth through trachea into bronchial tubes and then lungs
Bronchial tubes
left and right between trachea and lungs
Cilia
tiny hairs - keep airway clear by removing unwanted material from the lungs

line the bronchial tubes
Alveoli
tiny sacs surrounded by capillaries

permit exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide from the blood stream
Diaphragm (respiration)
abdominal muscle pulls air into the lungs by contracting
Inspiration
taking in oxygenated air
Expiration
carbon dioxide forced out of the body
Central Nervous System
CNS
brain, spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System
PNS
cranial and spinal nerves extend beyond CNS
Autonomic Nervous System
controls automatic body functions, like heartbeat and digestion
includes the sympathetic nerves and parasympathetic nerves
Sympathetic Nerves
active when a person is excited or scared
Parasympathetic nerves
active when a person is eating or at rest
Sensory-somatic nervous system
consists of 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves and associated ganglia

voluntary actions like walking and talking
Ganglia
collections of nerve cell bodies
Dendrites
receive stimuli from the internal and external environment and bring those stimuli to the neurons for interpretation
Neurons
specialized cells that make up the nervous system and transmit messages
Axon
connects one neuron with another neuron over a fluid filled gap called a synapse
Nervous system (functions)
to provide sensory, motor and integrative functions within the body

work together with other systems to react to stimuli and maintain homeostasis within the body
Nervous system - sensory
feeling heat, pain other stimuli

face, fingers and toes are more sensitive - greater number of sensory neurons

reflex - automatic withdrawal from pain/discomfort
Nervous system - motor
carry electrical impulses from CNS to effectors (glands and muscles)

decisions made in the integrative function acted upon by other parts of the body
Nervous system - integrative
uses sensory information to make decisions by joining together sensory input with memories already stored within the brain
develop thoughts and feelings upon which decisions may be made at a later time.
Digestive system (organs)
alimentary canal and accessory structures

includes mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) and large intestine (colon)
Small intestine
duodenum
jejunum
ileum
Digestive system (accessory structures)
teeth, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder
Gastrointestinal tract
stomach and intestines

long muscular tube line which smooth muscle in which peristalsis occurs
Peristalsis
rhythmic contractions that propel food toward the colon and anus

occurs in GI tract
Process of digestion
mechanical and chemical breakdown of food

teeth grind, chew and tear food into smaller pieces to increase the surface area upon which enzymes can act
Digestion (enzymes)
chemical which break down proteins, carbohydrates, and fats into nutrients which can be absorbed