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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
DNA
has codes that tell cells to perform certain functions. It specifies how proteins will be combined and DNA is exactly copied into new cell during reproduction
Cells
vary in size, shape, function and form tissues with other similar cells to perform a function
Organ System
organs working together to perform a task. 11 in the body
Integumentary
Skeletal
Muscular
Nervous
Endocrine
Cardiovascular
Lymphatic
Respiratory
Digestive
Urinary
Reproductive
Types of Tissue
Epithelium, connective tissue, muscle tissue, nervous tissue
Epithelium
tissue covers and is glandular.
It connects in sheets.
Does not have its own blood supply and is dependent on diffusion from capillaries for food and oxygen
Regenerates easily if well nourished
-Simple epithelium: 1 layer of cells functions in absorption, secretion, and filtration
-stratified epithelium: >1 layer of cells role in protection
Connective Tissue
throughout body and connects parts. Has own blood supply, exceptions exist like ligaments. Examples of this tissue are: one, cartilage, adipose tissue, and blood (vasular) tissue
Muscle Tissue
produces movement.
-Skeletal: voluntary movement connects skeletal system
-smooth: involuntary in walls of internal organs
-cardiac: involuntary only in the heart
Nervous Tissue
makes up neurons that send electrical impulses throughout the body.
Neurons and supporting neurons make up the nervous system that include: brain, spinal cord, and nerves
Integumentary System
skin. It protects internal tissues from injury, waterproofs the body, and helps regulate body temperature, barrier to foreign substances
Skeletal System
support and protection for the body and a framework for muscle tissue to move. Stores minerals. Consist of: bones, cartilage, ligaments, and joints
Muscular system
produces movement through contraction. Only skeletal muscles
Nervous system
brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sensory receptors. Body's control system. Sensory receptors detect stimuli and activates muscles or glands to respond. Fast acting
Endocrine system
Controls body functions at a slower rate than nervous system. Glands secrete hormones that travel through blood to organs. Ex: Pineal, pituitary, thyroid, thymus, and adrenal regulate growth and metabolism. Also pancreas, testes, and ovaries
Cardiovascular system
Heart, blood vessels, and blood. Travel system for substances like oxygen, hormones, and nutrients
Lymphatic system
lymphatic nodes and vessels, spleen, and thoracic duct. Returns fluid leaked from cardiovascular system to blood vessels and helps to cleanse blood and houses white blood cells involved in protection.
Respiratory system
Supplies all cells in body with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide. Nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs. Lungs have tiny air sacs called alveoli whose walls oxygen and carbon dioxide move in and out of blood vessels
Digestive system
mouth to anus: esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, and rectum. Breaks down food for nutrients to be passed through blood for circulation and extra is expelled through anus. Food breakdown ends in small intestine then only removal of water. Liver produces bile to break down fats and pancreas delivers enzymes to small intestine
Urinary system
maintains water and salt balance, regulates acid-base balance, and removes nitrogen containing wastes that are byproducts of protein and nucleic acid breakdown
Reproductive system
produces offspring. Sperm in men and egg production in women. Also houses hormones that encourage or suppress activities in the body (aggression, masculine, or feminine skeletal form)
Functions of life carried out by the body
Adaptation: receive, interpret, and respond to internal and external stimuli via nervous system
Circulation: transport oxygen and nutrients to tissues via cardiovascular system
Elimination: remove metabolic wastes from body via renal system
locomotion: voluntary and involuntary movement of body via musculoskeletal system
nutrition: take in and break down nutrients to be used for metabolism via digestive system
oxygenation: take in oxygen and expel co2 via respiratory system
regulation: hormonal control of bodily function via endocrine system
self duplication: offspring via reproductive system
Anatomical position
body facing forward, feet parallel, arms at side with palms forward
superior
toward the upper end of the body
inferior
toward lower end of the body
anterior
toward the front of the body
posterior
toward the back of the body
medial
toward the middle of the body
lateral
toward the outer side of the body
intermediate
between medial and lateral
proximal
close to the trunk of the body
distal
away from the trunk of the body
superficial
toward or at the body surface
deep
away from the body surface
sagittal section
cut made along longitudinal plane dividing body into right and left parts (midsagittal is down the median of the body)
transverse section/cross section
cut along horizontal plane divide the body into upper and lower regions
frontal/coronal section
cut along longitudinal place divides the body into front and back
dorsal body cavity
cranial cavity and spinal column
ventral body cavity
all structures in the chest and abdomen diaphragm divides ventral cavity into the thoracic cavity and abdominal and pelvic cavity
Systems interacting
maintaining boundaries (semipermeable membrane in cells, integumentary system)
responding to environmental change (involuntary sense and response to stimuli, nervous system activates other systems)
moving (muscular moves skeletal system, cardiovascular, digestive, reproductive, urinary, and respiratory system move involuntarily)
ingestion and digestion (organs work to remove nutrients and transmit to body using cardiovascular system)
reproduction (reproductive system and hormones regulate process using endocrine system)
growing (all systems contribute. skeletal and muscular systems change shape, digestive system removes nutrients, cardiovascular system moves nutrients to cells, endocrine releases hormones to signal growth)
excretion (after nutrient removal remains excreted from body by organs in digestive system and urinary system)
metabolism (way cells use energy, chemical reactions within a cell, digestive and respiratory systems supply nutrients and oxygen and blood distributes and hormones regulate)
Integumentary system interactions
skin healthy by receiving oxygen and nutrients from respiratory and digestive system that travel through blood vessels. Lymphatic system picks up excess fluid from skin to avoid swelling skeletal system supports hormones from endocrine system regulate hair growth and hydration. Skin protects internal organs, muscular system generates heat expels skin as sweat, urinary system activates Vitamin D, nervous system regulates sweat, interprets stimuli, and adjusts blood vessel diamter
Relationships with Skeletal system
endocrine releases hormones regulating growth and release of calcium, lymphatic system has immune cells protects against pathogens and removes excess fluid
digestive system provides nutrients
urinary system activates vitamin D and removes waste
muscular system determines bone shape and pulls against bone to increase bone strength
nervous system senses pain stimuli in bones and joints
respiratory system gives oxygen and takes co2
cardiovascular system supplies oxygen and nutrients and removes waste
reproductive system influences skeletal form
integumentary system provides vitamin d
relationships with muscular system
endocrine releases hormones that influence strength
nervous system regulates activity
reproductive encourges men's larger muscle size
bones are levers for activity
relationships with nervous system
endocrine system releases hormones regulate metabolism of neurons
urinary system disposes of metabolic wastes and maintains correct electrolyte arrangement
testosterone stimulates development of male reproductive organs, encourages growth of bone and musle and helps maintain muscle strength
relationships with endocrine system
cardiovascular gives a means for hormone transport
muscular system protects endocrine glands
nervous system controls functions of pituitary
relationships with cardiovascular system
hormones released influence bp
urinary system helps regulate blood volume and pressure through urine volume
nervous system controls bp and force, heart rate and blood distribution
in women estrogen preserves vascular health
integumentary system allows heat to escape
blood cells formed in the skeletal system
lymphatic system
urinary system maintains water, acid/base, and electrolyte balance of blood
brain helps immune response
acidic secretions in reproductive and integumentary system prevent bacterial growth
relationship with respiratory system
muscular system aids in breathing volume changes and nervous system regulates breathing rate and depth
relationship with digestive system
increased skeletal muscle activity increases movement of gi tract
urinary system transforms vitamin d to form that helps calcium absorption
relationship with urinary system
endocrine helps regulate reabsorption of water and electrolytes in renal area, liver (digestive system) synthesizes urea to be excreted by kidneys
relationship with reproductive system
cardiovascular system transports sex hormones
muscular system involved in child birth
respiratory rate increases during pregnancy