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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the two methods of systematics?
evolutionary taxonomy and cladistics
What is evolutionary taxonomy?
considers both evolutionary branching and the extent of divergence
What is clasdistics?
considers only evolutionary branching
What do both evolutionary taxonomy and cladistics use?
shared derived characteristics
What were the two kingdoms in the old system?
plantae and animalia
How was Kingdom Plantae described in the old system?
non-motile and autotrophic
How was Kingdom Animalia described in the old system?
motil and heterotrophic
What are the 5 kingdoms of the new system?
Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia
Characterize Kingdom Monera
- all prokaryotic organisms
- contain archaea bacteria, eubacteria, and cyanobacteria
Characterize Kingdom Protista
- one-celled eukaryotic organisms and close relatives
- very diverse
- ancestors of fungi, plants, animals
Characterize Kingdom Fungi.
-eukaryotic, multi-cellular
- non-motile
- cell walls similar to plants
- heterotrophic
-bread molds, mushrooms
Characterize Kingdom Plantae
-eukaryotic, multi-cellular
- autotrophic
- non-motile
- cell walls with cellulose
- mosses, ferns, conifers, flowering plants (most successful)
Characterize Kingdom Animalia
- eukaryotic, multi-cellular
- heterotrophic
- motile
What are the 4 types of body symmetry?
asymmetry, spherical, radial, bilateral
What is radial symmetry?
any cut thru the center in any plane will result in 2 equal halves
What is the oral surface?
the top (radial symmetry)
What is the aboral surface?
the bottom (radial symmetry)
What is bilateral symmetry?
one cut in 1 plane will produce 2 equal halves
What are the 4 major sides in bilateral symmetry?
dorsal (back)
anterior (head)
ventral (belly)
posterior (tail end)
What is the digestive cavity surrounded by?
surrounded by embryonic endoderm
What are the 3 types of body cavities?
acoelomates, pseudocoelomates, and true coelomates
What are acoelomates?
Organisms with no body cavity.

Ex. hydra (2 cell layers) and planaria (3 cell layers)
What are pseudocoelomates?
Organisms with body cavity between mesoderm and endoderm.

Ex. roundworms and rotifers
What are true coelomates?
Organisms with body cavity entirely within mesoderm.

Ex. earthworm, snail, insect, starfish, human