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69 Cards in this Set

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Three Reasons for Conducting Surveys
1. A policy needs to be set or a program planned
2. You want to evaluate the effectiveness of programs to change peopl's knowledge, attitudes, health, or welfare
3. You are a reasearcher and a survey is used to assist you
Other Sources of Information
1. Observations or eyewitness reports
2. Performance tests that require a person to perform a task
3. Written tests of ability or knowledge
4. Record reviews that rely on existing documentation (medical or school attendance records)
Surveys
Data collection methods used to obtain information from and about people
Sample
the number and characteristics of people in the survey
Design
How often the survey takes place
Cross-sectional
A survey design that takes place only once
Longitudinal
A survey design that takes place over time
Response rate
The amount of people that respond to a survey. The higher the better
Pilot Test
A tryout; designed to help produce a survey form that is usable
Reliability
Results in consistent information
Validity
Produces accurate information
Costs
Refers to the financial burden of developing and administering a survey
Define the Terms
Developing respected point of view to insure that the meanings of words are understood by those taking the survey
Hypotheses
What information do I want and must therefore make certain I will be collecting
Getting the Information You Need
People may be reluctant to reveal opinions. If you don't get the information you need, go to another data source
Get Information You Can Act On
The content of a survey can affect respondent's views and expectations; Write more questions than you plan to use b/c several will probably be rejected as unsuitable
Open-ended
Respondents agree to respond in their own words; offer insight into why people believe the things they do
Closed-survey
Consist of a stem which presents the problem followed by several alternative choices or solutions
Rules for Writing Closed Survey Questions
1. Ea. question should be meaningful.
2. Use standard English
3. Make questions concrete
4. Avoid biased words and phrases
5. Check your own biases
6. Use caution when asking for perosnal information
7. Each question should have just one thought
Rating Scales
Respondent places the item being rated at some point along a continuum or in any one of an ordered series of categories
Categorical
Nominal response scales, refer to answers given by people about the groups to which they belong
Ordinal
Require respondents place answers in rank order
Continuous-Type 1: Interval
Distances between numbers have real meaning
Continuous-Type 2: Ratio
Adjoining units on the scale are always equidistant from each other no matter where they are on the scale
Graphic Scales
Rating scale in which the continuum of responses is visual; sometimes harder to interpret
Comparative Rating Scales
Rely on relative judgements, most common is the rank order
Differential Scales
Distinguish among people in terms of whether they agree or disagree with experts
Checklist to Guide Question Order
1. For a given topic, ask relatively objective questions before subjective
2. Move form most familiar to least
3. Follow the natural sequence of time
4. All questions are independent
5. Easy-to-answer questions at the end
6. Avoid many items tha tlook alike
7. Sensitive question should be placed well after the start and well before it ends
8. Questions in logical order
Checklist for Self-Administered Questionnaires
1. Send and advance letter telling the purpose
2. Prepare a short formal explanation to accompany survey
3. Offer to send a summary of findings
4. Explain personal questions
5. Keep question procedures simple. Provide SASE
6. Keep questions short
7. Consider incentives
8. Be preared to follou upo r send reminders
Predictive Validity
Validating a survey by proving that it predicts an individual's ability to perform a task or behavior
Concurrent Validity
Comparing it against a known and accepted measure
Content Validity
Validated by proving that its items accurately represent the characteristic or attitudes they are to measure
Construct Validity
Trying the survey on people whom experts say do and do not exhibit the behavior associated with the construct
Trend Designs
Surveying a particular group, over time
Cohort Designs
Study a particular group over time, but the people in the group may vary
Panel Designs
Collecting data from the same sample over time.
Comparison Group Survey Designs: Quasi- and True Experiments
People are divided into two or more groups, and their survey results are compared. Differences must be known in advance
Norm
Standard for comparing groups; come from existing data
Normative Survey Design
Survey compared against "norms"
Case Control Design
Groups of individuals are slected because they have (the case) or do not have (the control) the condition being studied; used by researchers who are testing a specific hypothesis
Management Innovation
the development and implementation of new policy designs and new SOPs by public organizations to address public policy problems.
Policy Planning Model
Emphasizes innovation through creative policy design
Groping Along Model
Emphasizes field-level experimentation with new ideas.
First Question of Management Innovation
What aspect of the organization are we trying to change.
Three Arenas Calling for Different Organizational Change
External
Macro-internal
Micro-internal
External Arena
Comprises the organizations environment; includes the organziations mission, resource base, market niche
Macro-Internal Arena
Deals with large-scale organizationwide systems and infrastructure. Includes the budget, purchasing, personnel, security, information, and other support systems
Micro-internal Arena
Deals with individual organizational units as SOPs are developed, implemented, and analyzed. Include behavioral incentives or motivation and interpersonal relations at work
First Factor the Mgt. Innovator must consider
What does the technique do? What kind of organizational learning does it facilitate? How much does it cost to do?
First Job of the Innovator
Learn about the inherent strengths and weaknesses of the tool that derive from the tool's definitions
Organization Culture
How are things done? What is the informal organization? Who makes things happen? What types of change have been successful? What types of change have failed?
Tool application
Gently to test their effect before their use is attempted throughout the organization
Strategic Planning Exercise
Involves an organizationwide initiative to reformulate goals and develop new methods of achieveing those goals.
Enviornmental Scan
Helps the strategic planning team to view the organization's current position "in light of past events, current conditions, and future possibilities"
Seven Steps of Strategic Planning
1. Problem and opportunity analysis
2. Identification and analysis of players
3. Historical analysis
4. Organizational and situational analysis
5. Concrete strategy formulation
6. Preimplementation projection
7. Evaluation and midcourse correction
Identification and Analysis of Players
Identify and analyze the people and groups that interact with the organization
Historical Analysis
Identify past patterns of cause and effect. What led to past success and failure?
Organizational Situational Analysis
What are we capable of doing? What is expected of us?
What environmental factors will impeded or facilitate or work?
Concrete Strategy Formulation
Identify the specific short-term and long-term steps involved in accomplishing the organizations objectives
Preimplementation Pojection
Evaluating fit and feasability of formulated strategies. Consider measures and probabilities of success
Evaluation and Midcourse Correction
Constant and rapid adjustments in the light of experience.
Three Central Elements of TQM
1. Collaborations with suppliers to ensure supplies utilized are well designed and fit for use
2. Continuous employee analysis of work processes to improve their functioning and reduce variation
3. Close communication with customers to identify and understand needs and how they define quality
Focus on Production in the Field
Mgt. and workers focus attention on the process of producing goods and services
Worker Participation
Mgt. must depend on workers to analyze and suggest improvements to work processes.
Communication with Customers and Suppliers
TQM insures that all internal customers are to be equally satisfied with services or product as well as external
Rapid Change in SOP and Constant Training
Continuous improvement requires continuous modification of SOP and the communication of those new processes
Small-Scale Projects
Teaches workers how to interact with suppliers and customers and analyze their own work processes.
Eventual Invisibility
"The way we work around here"
Benchmarking
The systematic process of searching for best practices, innovative ideas and highly effective operating procedures that lead to superior performance.