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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
application of science to those criminal and civil laws enforced by police and justice systems
physical science unit
chemistry, physics, geology applied to identify and compare CS evidence
biology unit
identification and DNA profiling of dried blood stains, bodily fluids, hairs, fibers, identification of woods and plants
firearms unit
identification of firearms, bullets, cartridge cases, shotgun shells, and ammunition
document examination unit
handwriting and typewriting on questioned documents (authenticity and source)
photography unit
examine and record physical evidence: digital imaging, infrated, ultraviolet & x-ray photography
toxicology unit
examines bodily fluids,& organs to determine if drugs and poisons were a factor in the crime
latent fingerprint unit
processing and examining for latent fingerprints
polygraph unit
lie detector, used in interrogation
voiceprint analysis
unique soundprints are compared to people from telephone threats, etc
evidence collection unit
collected evidence that will be processed in the lab is taken from these special workers
Frye standard
"generally accepted"
Daubert ruling
"general acceptance" is not an absolute prerequisite to the admissibility of the evidence
expert witness
if i witness can establish to the satisfaction of a trial judge that he or she posesses a particular skill or knowledge that will aid the court in determining the truth
forensic pathology
investigation of sudden, unnatural, unexplained or violent deaths
qualitative observation
observations that do NOT involve measurements or numbers
quantitative observations
observations that DO involve measurements or numbers
rigor mortis
after death, the shortening and stiffening of the body
livor mortis
after death, results in the settling of blood in areas of the body closest to the ground
algor mortis
postmortem changes that cause a body to lose heat
forensic entomology
the study of insects
forensic anthropology
identification and observation of human skelatol remains
forensic psychaitry
relationship between human behavior and legal proceedings is examined
forensic odontology
identification of the body through teeth and dental records (charred victims, etc)
forensic engineering
failure analysis, accident reconstruction, causes and oridins of fires or explosions
posessing crime scene
1. secure& isolate
2. record the scene
3. photograph
4. sketch
5. take notes
6. search for evidence
7. collect&package evidence
8. COC
9.reference samples
physical evidence
any object that can link a crime and a victim or make an explanation
rough sketch
depiction of dimensions of the scene
finished sketch
drawn with care for aesthetic appearance (drafting tools, rulers)
search methods
1. spiral
2. grid method
3. sprip/line
4. zone/quadrant
cross transfer of evidence
chain of custody
standard procedures in recording location, identification, each person who handled the evidence
individual characteristics
evidence with an extremely high degree of probability, such as ridges of a fingerprint
class characteristics
evidence that is possessed by a group
refractive index=
velocity of light in a vacuum

velocity of light in a medium
amorphous solids
solids that lack a definite arrangement in crystals
phenomenon of double refraction of light waves in a transparent ordered material
tempered glass
glass that dices and doesnt shard
laminated glass
sandwiches plastic between two layers of ordinary glass window
becke line
bright halo near the border of the piece of glass in a liquid medium. it disappears when the refractive indices are the same
radial fractures
straight lines from the epicenter
concentric fractures
circles surrounding the hole
an analytical method for identifying a substance by its selective absorbtion of diff wavelengths of light
seperating and tentatively identifying the components of a mixture
gas chromatography
separates mixtures on the basis of their distibution between a stationary liquid and moving gas phase
decomposition of organic matter by heat
mass spectrophotometry
no two substances produce the same fragmental pattern
separation of molecules through their migrationon a support medium whle under the influence of electrons
scale structure covering the exterior of the hair
main body of the hair shaft
cellular column running through the center of the hair
medullary index
diameter of the medulla relative to the diameter of the hair
natural fibers
derived from plants or animal sources
man made fibers
rayon- 1911, nylon 1939
synthetic fibers
automotive finishings
1. electrocaot primer
2. primer
3. basecoat
4. clearcoat