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160 Cards in this Set

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RESPONSIBILITIES OF INVESTIGATORS
1. DETERMINE WHETHER A CRIME HAS BEEN COMMITTED.
2. DECIDE IF THE CRIME WAS COMMITTED WITHIN THE INVESTIGATORS JURISDICTION.
3. DISCOVER ALL FACTS PERTAINING TO THE COMPLAINT.
A. GATHER AND PRESERVE PHYSICAL EVIDENCE.
B. DEVELOP AND FOLLOW UP ALL CLUES.
4. RECOVER STOLEN PROPERTY.
5. IDENTIFY THE PERPETRATOR OR ELIMINATE A SUSPECT AS THE PERPETRATOR.
6. LOCATE AND APPREHEND THE PERP.
7. AID IN THE PROSECUTION OF THE OFFENDER BY PROVIDING EVIDENCE OF GUILT THAT IS ADMISSIBLE IN COURT.
8. TESTIFY EFFECTIVELY AS A WITNESS IN COURT.
DETERMINE IF A CRIME HAS BEEN COMMITTED
AN INVESTIGATOR SHOULD HAVE A COPY OF THE PENAL LAW AND CASE LAW OF THE STATE AND THE PROSECUTING ATTORNEY CAN BE CONSULTED.
VERIFY JURISDICTION
DECIDING WHO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE INVESTIGATION IN ORDER TO MAKE A GOOD ARREST.
DISCOVER ALL FACTS AND COLLECT ALL EVIDENCE
COLLECT ALL PHYSICAL EVIDENCE OR ARRANGE FOR its COLLECTION AND EXAMINATION IN THE CRIMINALISTICS LAB. FOLLOW THROUGH ON ANY CLUE THAT HOLDS PROMISE FOR THE ID OF THE PERPETRATOR. PREPARE FOR THE FACT THAT THE INFO DEVELOPED MAY BE TESTED IN COURT. AT FIRST OPPORTUNITY A SKETCH, PHOTOGRAPHS, AND NOTES OF THE CRIME SCENE SHOULD BE MADE. IF THE PERPS NAME IS REVIELED THEN THERE IS THE PROBLEM OF PROVING THE SUSPECTS INVOLVEMENT.
RECOVER STOLEN PROPERTY
RECOVERING ITEMS FROM SECOND HAND DEALERS AND PAWN SHOPS.
IDENTIFYING THE PERP
SOME SECOND HAND DEALERS AND PAWN SHOP EMPLOYEES MAY BE ABLE TO ID THE PERP THAT BROUGHT IN THE STOLEN ITEMS.
MOTIVE AS MEANS OF ID
THE VALUE OF MOTIVE MUST BE EXAMINED. SUCH AS ROBBERY, BURGLARY, AND RAPE SEEM TO HAVE A UNIVERSAL MOTIVE. WHILE HOMICIDE, ARSON, AND ASSAULT HAVE PARTICULARIZED MOTIVES BECAUSE THEY OFTEN RELATE VICTIM TO CRIMINAL.
HOW CAN YOU AID THE PROSECUTION IN A COURT PROCEEDING
MAKE SURE ALL NOTES, SKETCHES, AND PHOTOGRAPHS ARE MADE IN A TIMELY FASHION FROM THE VERY BEGINNING AND THAT ALL EVIDENCE PRESENT IS PROPERLY HANDLED AND EXAMINED.
4 ITEMS OF CONCERN
TESTIFY EFFECTIVELY
TESTIMONY IS EFFECTIVE ONLY WHEN IT IS CREDIBLE. SINCERITY, KNOWLEDGE OF FACTS, AND IMPARTIALITY ARE PROJECTED, CREDIBILITY IS ESTABLISHED.
ATTRIBUTES DESIRABLE IN AN INVESTIGATOR
KNOW HOW TO RECOGNISE, COLLECT, AND PRESERVE PHYSICAL EVIDENCE. KNOW THE VARIETIES OF MODUS OPERANDI. KNOW HOW TO USE INTERVIEWING TECHNIQUES. KNOW INTERROGATION METHODS. HAVE KNOWLEDGE OF LOCAL STREE JARGON. BE SENSITIVE OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS OF ALL. KNOW SOURCES OF RECORDS AND HOW TO CHECK THEM. KNOW HOW TO CULTIVATE AND USE INFORMANTS. KNOW HOW TO CONDUCT SURVEILLANCES. KNOW HOW TO CHECK PAWN SHOPS, AND SUCH. HAVE KNOWLEDGE AND SKILL IN ENGLISH. KNOW HOW TO USE DEPARTMENTAL AND COURT FORMS TO SECURE SEARCH WARRANTS. KNOW THE TECHNIQUES OF COVER AND CONCEALMENT. AQUIRE SKILL IN SILENT COMMUNICATION. AQUIRE A WORKING KNOWLEDGE OF APPLICABLE LAWNS, RULES AND REGULATIONS. KNOW ABOUT THE USE OF COME-ALOND HANDCUFF, AND SERVICE REVOLVER. KNOW SEARCH AND SEIZURE TECHNIQUES. KNOW HOW TO PREPARE CLEAR, COMPREHENSIVE REPORTS. KNOW HOW TO SERVE SUBPOENAS. KNOW HOW TO HAVE WITNESSES AVAILABLE. TESTIFY EFFECTIVELY IN COURT.
FORENSICS DEFINED
THE SCIENTIFIC EXAMINATION OF EVIDENCE. TWO MAJOR BRANCHES ARE CRIMINALISTICS AND FORENSIC MEDICINE.
CRIMINALISTICS
THE RECORDING, SCIENTIFIC EXAMINATION, AND INTERPRETATION OF THE MINUTE DETAIL TO BE FOUND IN PHYSICAL EVIDENCE.
WET CHEMISTRY
INSTRUMENTAL CHEMISTRY
FIREARMS AND TOOLMARKS
QUESTIONED DOCUMENTS
FINGERPRINTS
PHOTOGRAPHY
LIE DETECTION
VIOCE SPECTROSCOPY
FORENSIC MEDICINE
PATHOLOGY
SEROLOGY
TOXICOLOGY
ODONTOLOGY
PSYCHIATRY
Custody of Remains
1. MEO/PD takes initial custody
2. Release to Human ID lab
3. Return to MEo
4 different types of crime scene search patterns
Spiral Search, Grid Search, Strip or Line Search, Quadrant or Zone Search
A bony mass on the skull, just behind the ears, for the attachment of neck muscles. Larger in males.
Mastoid process
A condition of stage in the physical being of matter
Physical state
A crack in a glass that forms a rough circle around the point of impact
Concentric fracture
A crack that extends outwards like the spoke of a wheel from the point at which the glass was struck
Radial fracture
A difference in the two indices of refraction exhibited by most crystalline materials
Birefringence
A draft representation of all essential information and measurements at a crime scene. This sketch is drawn at the crime scene
Rough sketch
A fingerprint made by the deposit of oils and/or perspiration; invisible to the naked eye
Latent fingerprint
A lens that provides continuous focusing, from infinity to extreme close ups, often to a reproduction ratio of 1:2 or 1:1 (half life size or life size
macro lens
A physical change from a solid direction into the gaseous state
Sublimation
A precise rendering of the crime scene, often drawn to scale
Finished sketch
A series of light and dark bands formed when X-Rays combine with one another; it is unique to a compound
Diffraction pattern
A solid in which the constituent atoms have a regular arrangement
Crystalline solid
A solid in which the constituent atoms or molecules are arranged in random or disordered positions. There is no regular order
Amorphous solid
A technique for the separation of molecules through their on a support medium while under the influence of an electrical potential
Electrophoresis
A type of emission spectrum showing a continuous band of colors all bleeding into one another
Continous spectrum
A type of emission spectrum showing a series of lines separated by black areas. Each line represents a definite wavelength or frequency.
Line spectrum
Amount of light allowed to reach the film or sensor, determined by intensity of the light, amount admitted by the lens, and length of time determined by shutter speed
Exposure
An analytical method for identifying a substance by its selective absorption of different wavelengths of light
Spectrophotometry
An analytical technique used to identify crystalline materials
X-Ray Diffraction
An erasure will disrupt?
the upper fibers of the questioned document
An individual whom the court determines possesses knowledge relevant to the trial that is not expected of the average lay person
Expert witness
An instrument that links a microscope to a spectrophotometer
Microspectrophotometer
Another word for medical examiner, must go to med school (4 yrs), postgrad in pathology (4 yrs), additional training in Forensic Path 5 yrs, and board certification.
Reviews medical history, reviews witness statements, scene investigation, autopsy examination
Forensic Pathologist
any intentional changes in normal bone structure whether for social preference or individual preference
Body modification
Any object that can establish that a crime has been committed or can provide a link between a crime and its victim or between a crime and its perpetrator
Physical evidence
Any of several analytical techniques whereby organic mixtures are separated into their components by their attraction to a stationary phase while being propelled by a moving phase
Chromatography
Automatic setting in automatic camera that provides the optimum combo of shutter speed and f-stop at a given level of illumination
. Exposure program
Autopsy performed in case of unnatural death, for medico-legal purposes
Forensic Autopsy
Camera feature that lets you freeze the auto focus of the lens when the subject you want to capture is in sharp focus, then reframe the photograph without changing focus.
Focus lock
Case documented in 3 parallel places:
Case log book, Processing log, and Individual case file Documentation of Remains Chemical Erasure removal of text by reacting the ink with a solvent
Condition in which too little light reaches the film or sensor, producing a thin negative, a dark slide, a muddy-looking print, or dark digital image
under exposure
Condition in which too much light reaches the film or sensor, producing a dense negative or a very bright/light print, slide, or digital image
over exposure
Consider a proper exposure using at f/11 @ 60. Changing the f-stop to f8 would require what shutter speed for an equivalent exposure
f/8 @ 125
Describe the differences between high and low ISO
High ISO leads to grainy photos, but sensitive to light
* Low ISO leads to less grainy photos, with less sensitivity to light
Distance between the film and the optical center of the lens when the lens is focused on infinity
Focal length
Distance in front of and behind the subject which appears to be in focus
Depth of field
Fields of study in medicine and jurisprudence dealing with legal issues, both criminal and civil. Subfields include
toxicology, entomology, pathology and anthropology Forensic Sciences
Form of chromatography with a liquid moving phase and a gas stationary phase in which the entire process occurs at room temperature
High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)
Glass to which strength has been added by introducing stress through the rapid heating and cooling of the glass surfaces
Tempered glass
Handwritting analysts will collect as many ______ as possible, the more is better.
exemplars
natural, accidental, homicide, suicide, undetermined
Manner of Death
In photography, lighting used to illuminate shadows
Fill lighting None
Infrared Luminescence
the refraction of infrared spectrum when exposed to a blue green light source
Lens opening or iris that admits light to the film or sensor
lens aperture
Lens or lens setting that magnifies an image
Telephoto
Light emitted from a source and separated into its component colors or frequencies
Emission spectrum
Light falling on a surface
incident light
Light that passes up from the condenser and through the specimen
Transmitted illumination
Light-measuring device that calculates exposure based on brightness of entire image
Averaging meter
Light-sensitive coating on a piece of film, paper, or printing plate
Emulsion
Line, grid, circular, random
Search methods
List of all persons who came into posession of an item of evidence
Chain of custody
Movement of the camera, aggravated by slower shutter speeds, causing image blur
Camera shake
Moving the camera so that the image of a moving object remains in the same relative position in the viewfinder as you take a picture
panning
Number of pixels per inch, used to determine the size of the image when printed
resolution
Outsmarting Deception
never show suspect the questionable document
-do not provide spelling grammar or punctuation assistance
-use several different pens including 1 similar tothe document
-write in script and print
-repeat three times
-acquire signatures accompaying other texts
Physical evidence must be ___, ___, and ___.
Recognized, Collected, Preserved
Properties of evidence that can only be associated with a group and never with a single source Class characteristics
Range between lightest and darkest tones in an image
Contrast
Range that the image capturing surface could be moved while maintaining acceptable focus
Depth of focus
Solid stationary phase and a moving liquid phase; a glass plate is prepared by coating it with a granular material
Thin-layer chromatography
The bending of a light wave as it passes from one medium to another
Refraction
The area of the specimen that can be seen after it is magnified
Field of view
The f-stop is the ratio of what two parts of the camera?
. effective focal length of the lens
2. diameter of the entrance pupil
The lower lens of a microscope that is positioned directly over the specimen
Objective lens
The medical condition that occurs after death and results in the settling of blood in areas of the body closest to the ground
Livor mortis
The medical condition that occurs after death and results in the shortening of muscle tissue and the stiffening of body parts in the position they are in when death occurs
Rigor mortis
This camera feature selects the correct focus distance for you, usually based on contrast of image or infrared sensor
Auto Focus
This camera setting allows you to specify the f-stop, while the camera autoselects the shutter speed
Aperture priority
To admit visible light when exposed to light of a shorter wavelength
Fluoresce
To decrease depth of field, do this to the aperture. What f-stop?
Lower f-stop leads to low depth of field, e.g., f/2.8
to enlarge or reduce the size of an image on your monitor/enlarge or reduce size of image using magnification settings of a lens
zoom
To increase depth of field, do this to the aperture. What f-stop
Higher f-stop leads to higher depth of field, e.g., f/11
To reduce purity or vividness of a color
Desaturate
Two sheets of ordinary glass bonded together with plastic film
Laminated glass
Type of camera that allows you to see through the camera's lens as you look in the camera's viewfinder
single lens reflex (SLR)
What are the first 7 half stops, starting with f/4
f/4, f/4.8, f/5.6, f/6.7, f/8, f/9.5, f/11
What are the first 9 full stops starting with f/1.4?
f/1.4, f/2, f/2.8, f/4, f/5.6, f/8, f/11, f/16, f/22
What are the first x 1/3-stops, starting with f/4?
f/4, f/4.5, f/5, f/5.6, f/6.3, f/7.1, f/8, f/9, f/10, f/11
What are the whole shutter speeds from 1000 to 1 second
1000, 500, 250, 125, 60, 30, 15, 8, 4, 2, 1, 1, 2, B
Types of Powders used for detecting fingerprints
black powder on light surfaces
white powder on dark surfaces
what are powders applied with
ostrich feather, a camel hair or nylon brush or atomizer
iodine fuming
yeilds a temporary brownish colored print that fades within a few hours
ninhydrin
reacts with the amino acids and is useful on paper, but not on money.
silver nitrate
reacts with chloride excreated from persperation
cyanoacrylate
super glue fuming used on glass, metal, plastic and packaging.
ultraviolet
beyond the visible spectrum. (floresce)
laser
luminesence
types of classification by ridge lines
arch, loop, whoorl
what percentage of fingerprints have each ridge line
arches 5-10, loops 60-70, whoorls 25-30
two types of arches
plain and tented
two types of loops
ulnar and radial
4 types of whoorls
plain, central pocket, double loop, and accidental.
loops have ridges between
delta and core
meet whoorls
the left delta comes with in 3 ridges to the right delta
inner tracing
there are 3 or more ridge lines between the trace and the right deltas and the trace runs through the delta and core.
outer tracing
the left delta traces with 3 or more ridge lines between the right delta
The term_____________ encompasses all objects that can establish whether a crime has been committed or can provide a link between a crime and it victims or perp.
physical evidence
scientific evaluation of crime scene evidence can usually overcome the results of a poorly conducted criminal investigation. true or false.
false
the techniques of physical evidence collection require a highly skilled individual who must specialize in the area of investigation. true or false
false
all unathorized personnel must be ________ from the crime scenes.
excluded
three methods for recording the crime scene are
photography, sketches, and notes
the most important prerequisite for photographing a crime scene is to have it in an ______ condition.
unaltered
photographs of physical evidence must include overviews as well as ______ to record details of objects
close-ups
an investigator need only to draw a _______ sketch at the crime scene to show the dimensions and pertinent objects.
rough
besides the more obvious items of physical evidence, possible ________ of trace evidence must be collected for detailed examination in the lab.
carriers.
a detailed search of the crime scene for physical evidence must be conducted in a ________manner
systematic
what type of evidence retrieved from a deceased victim is to be submitted to The crime lab.
victims clothing, fingernail clippings, head and pubic hair, blood, vaginal, anal and oral swabs, recovered bullets from the body, and had swabs from shooting victims.
9 ITEMS
whenever possible, trace evidence (is/is not) to be removed from the object that bears it.
is not
each item collected at the crime scene must be placed in a ________ container.
seperate
an ordinary mailing envelope is considered to be a good general purpose evidence container. (true or false)
false
an airtight container is/is not recommended packaging material for a bloodstained garment.
is not
as a matter of routine, all items of clothing are to be _______ before packaging
air dried
charred debris recovered from the scene of an arson is best placed in a porous container. (true or false)
false
the possibility of future legal proceedings requires that a _____________ be established with respect to the possession and location of physical evidence.
chain of custody
most physical evidence collected at the crime scene will require accomanying submission of __________ material for comparison purposes.
control
THE PROCESS OF ________ DETERMINES A SUBSTANCE'S PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL IDENTITY WITH AS NEAR ABSOLUTE CERTAINTY AS EXSISTING ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES WILL PERMIT
IDENTIFICATION
THE NUMBER AND TYPE OF TESTS NEEDED TO ID A SUBSTANCE MUST BE SUFFICIENT TO _______ ALL OTHER SUBSTANCES FROM CONSIDERATION.
EXCLUDE
A _____ANALYSIS SUBJECTS A SUSPECT AND CONTROL SPECIMEN TO THE SAME TESTS AND EXAMINATION FOR THE ULTIMATE PURPOSE OF DETERMINING WHETHER THEY HAVE A COMMON ORIGIN.
COMPARISON
___________IS THE FREQUENCY OF OCCURENCE OF AN EVENT
PROBABILITY
EVIDENCE THAT CAN BE TRACED TO A COMMON SOURCE WITH AN EXTREMELY HIGH DEGREE OF PROBABILITY IS SAID TO POSSESS ___________ CHARACTERISTICS
INDIVIDUAL
EVIDENCE ASSOCIATED WITH A GROUP AND NOT TO A SINGLE SOURCE IS SAID TO POSSESS _____ CHARACTERISTICS
CLASS
ONE OF THE MAJOR DEFICIENCES OF FORENSIC SCIENCE IS THE INABILITY OF THE EXAMINER TO ASSIGN EXACT OR APPROX PROBABILITY VALUES TO THE COMPARISON OF MOST CLASS PHYSICAL EVIDENCE (TRUE OR FALSE)
TRUE
THE VALUE OF CLASS PHYSICAL EVIDENCE LIES IN IT'S ABILITY TO PROVIDE ________ OF EVENTS THAT IS AS NEARLY AS POSSIBLE FREE OF HUMAN ERROR
CORRABORATIONS
THE ______ ACCORDED PHYSICAL EVIDENCE DURING A TRIAL IS LEFT ENTIRELY TO THE TRIER OF FACT
WEIGHT
PHYSICAL EVIDENCE CANNOT BE USED TO EXCLUDE OR EXONERATE A PERSON FROM SUSPICION OF COMMITTING A CRIME (T OR F)
FALSE
THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN INDIVIDUAL AND CLASS EVIDENCE IS ALWAYS EASY TO MAKE. T/F
FALSE
MODERN ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES HAVE BECOME SO SENSITIVE THAT THE FORENSIC EXAMINER MUST BE AWARE OF THE _______ THAT EXISTS AMONG MATERIALS WHEN INTERPRETING THE SIGNIFICANCE OF COMPARATIVE DATA
LIMITS OF NATURAL VARIATION
A CRIME CAN ACCURATELY BE RECONSTRUCTED SOLELY ON THE PRESENCE OR ABSENCE OF PHYSICAL EVIDENCE. T/F
FALSE
A ___PROPERTY DESCRIBES THE BEHAVIOR OF A SUBSTANCE WITHOUT REFERENCE TO ANY OTHER SUBSTANCE
PHYSICAL
A ____ PROPERTY IS ONE THAT DESCRIBES THE BEHAVIOR OF A SUBSTANCE WHEN IT REACTS OR COMBINES WITH ANOTHER SUBSTANCE.
CHEMICAL
THE _______SYSTEM OF MEASURMENT WAS DEVISED BY THE FRENCH ACADEMY OF SCIENCE
METRIC
THE BASIC UNIT OF MEASURMENT FOR LENGTH, MASS, AND VOLUME IN THE METRIC SYSTEM ARE THE ________, _________, AND ______
METER, GRAM, AND LITER
A CENTIGRAM IS EQUAL TO ___________ OF A GRAM
1/100
A MILLILITER IT EQUIVALENT TO _______ LITER
1/1000
.2 GRAMS IS EQUIVALENT TO _____MILLIGRAMS
200
ONE CUBIC CENTIMETER IS EQUIVALENT TO ONE _______
ML
ONE METER IS SLIGHTLY LONGER THAT A YARD T/F
TRUE
THE EQUIVALENT OF ONE POUND IN GRAMS IS _
453.6
A LITER IS SLIGHTLY LARGER THAN A QUART. T/F
TRUE
______ IS A MEASURE OF A SUBSTANCE'S HEAT INTENSITY
TEMPRATURE
THERE ARE _____DEGREES FAHRENHEIT BETWEEN FREEZING AND BOILING POINTS OF WATER
180
THERE ARE _____DEGREES CELSIUS BETWEEN THE FREEZING AND BOILING POINT OF WATER
100
THE AMOUNT OF MATTER AN OBJECT CONTAINS DETERMINES IT'S ____
MASS
THE SIMPLEST TYPE OF BALANCE FOR WEIGHING IS THE ________
EQUAL ARM BALANCE
MASS PER UNIT VOLUME DEFINES THE PROPERTY _______
DENSITY