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260 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the teeth findings in hypomelanosis of Ito?
Anodontia

Also see:
marble-cake hypopigmentation
epilepsy
alopecia
scoliosis
mental/motor retardation
What is the MCC of diabetes-related yeast infections?
C. albicans
What two forms of GA have been implicated in diabetes? (although controversial)
Generalized
Perforating
What is the MOA of cimetidine?
competitively inhibits DHTat the androgen receptor site
Anti-androgen effects: loss of libido, gynecomastia
What are the major components of anchoring filaments?
Laminin 5
BP180
UVB acts on what compound to form pre-vitamin D3?
UVB converts 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin to pre-Vitamin D3, which then thermally isomerizes to form Vitamin D3.
How long is the life cycle of the scabies mite?
1 month
Which diseases is the human body louse a vector for?
Trench fever
epidemic typhus
relapsing fever
What medications cause blue-gray pigmentation on sun-exposed areas but not sclerae, lunulae, or mucous membranes?
Amiodarone
chlorpromazine
tricyclic antidepressants
What are 3 types of melanoma-associated leukoderma?
1) Analogous to halo nevus
2) Remote leukoderma distant from the primary lesion
3) vitiligo like leukoderma

Hypomelanosis portends better prognosis
What is the major function of urocanic acid?
Urocanic acid is a by product of filaggrin degradation
Has peak absorbtion of 345nm
Functions as major UVA filter
What are features associated with atopic dermatitis?
pityriasis alba
white dermatographism
delayed blanch reponse anterior subcapsular cataracts
keratoconus
What do Dermacentor variabilis ticks transmit?
RMSF
Tularemia
What is the venom of the honeybee (Hymenoptera)?
Phospholipase A
What organism causes erosio interdigitalis blastomycetica?
C. albicans
Balanitis circinata presents as sharply demarcated, serpiginous ulcers or plaques on the penile head.
Balanitis circinata is usually seen in Reiter's syndrome which has a classic triad of arthritis, urethritis, and conjunctivitis. The syndrome typically occurs post-infection of the GI or urinary tract.
Which is the most common site for abdominal carcinoid tumors causing the classic carcinoid syndrome?
Ileum
What medications are associated with xerosis?
HMG coA reductase inhibitors
Niacin
Alter the lipid composition of the epidermis & SC
Impair the normal barrier function of the skin
What is the MC photoallergen?
Oxybenzone
When do atypical mycobacterial infections typically occur after cosmetic procedures?
4-14 weeks
Present as firm nodules at the treatment site or dehiscence of a previously healed wound
What retinoid targets RXR receptors?
Bexarotene
Side effects: central hypothyroidism & hyperlipidemia
Treat with: synthroid, lipitor, fenofibrate
What is the dermoscopic finding of hemangiomas?
maroon lagoon or red sacculae appearance
What are Odland bodies?
Odland bodies (AKA lamellar granules)
Lamellated bodies containing ceramide
Found intercellularly in upper level keratinocytes
Discharge contents into the extracellular space at the junction of the granular and horny layers
Barrier to water loss
With filaggrin mediate stratum corneum adhesion
Type of secretory granule with features of lysosomes
What phenotype results from a low activity of double stranded RNA adenosine deaminase?
Dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria (or acropigmentation symmetrica of Dohi) is an autosomal dominant disease with hypo and hyper pigmented macules and patches on the dorsal hands and feet associated with a low activity of double stranded RNA adenosine deaminase
Which vector transmits Borrelia duttonii?
Causes relapsing fever
Transmitted by Ornithodoros moubata
What is a recently reported side effect of diode laser therapy?
Reticulate erythema
What wavelength range most effectively induces cutaneous immunosuppression?
UVB: 290-320nm
Acquired progressive kinking of the hair is associated with which medication?
Retinoids
What is the MCC eumycotic mycetoma in the USA?
Scedosporium apiospermum (asexual stage)
Pseudallescheria boydii
(sexual stage)
What is the primary component of human sebum?
Triglycerides
Distal subungual onychomycomycosis with associated paronychia is due to what?
Scytalidium dimidiatum
Mold
More often in fingernails than toenails
What causes black hairy tongue?
Poor oral hygiene
Antibiotics
HIV
Tobacco
Alcohol
Radiation
Which antifungal does not require an acid environment and can work even when pt is on antacids?
Fluconazole
Which antihistamine has suppressor T cell inhibitory activity?
Cimetidine
Which cytokine is predominantly responsible for the Jarish-Herxheimer reaction?
TNF alpha
What vitamin deficiency is associated with scrotal dermatitis sparing the midline and extending to the thighs?
vitamin B2 (riboflavin)
MC in alcoholics
Oral-ocular-genital syndrome
Also: angular cheilitis, atrophic glossitis (magenta), seborrheic-like dermatitis around the nose, photophobia, and blepharitis.
What malignancies are associated with EGR?
Lung (MC)
Also: breast, cervical, bowel, and bladder cancer
When does tissue contraction occur in wound healing?
During 2nd week
When does hair follicle development begin in the embryo?
3rd month
Where are unbound corticosteroid receptors found in the cell?
Cytoplasm
Estrogen receptors: nucleus Progesterone receptors: both the nucleus & cytoplasm
MCC death in DKC?
Pancytopenia
What is the treatment for glanders?
Surgical excision of the lesion followed by streptomycin + tetracycline
What causes glanders?
gram-negative rod, Burkholderia mallei
Multiple clear cell acanthoma are associated with what?
Ichthyosis
What syndromes are associated with poromas?
Clouston's
Schopf-Schultz-Passarge
What benign adnexal neoplasm can cause necrosis en masse?
Poroma
Which B cell receptor is involved in Ig isotype switching?
CD40
Which syndrome is associated with a defect in the CD40 ligand?
Hyper IgM
What is the TOC for ENL?
thalidomide
What is the gene defect of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immune deficiency ?
NEMO
Which type of epidermolysis bullosa has the greatest risk of developing squamous cell carcinomas?
RDEB-HS type
Which genodermatosis is associated with increased desmosine? decreased desmosine?
Increased desmosine: Buschke-Ollendorf
Decreased desmosine:
cutis laxa
Maple leaf-like structures seen on dermoscopy are characteristic of which lesion?
pigmented BCC
What type of UV rays are associated with immediate pigment darkening?
UVA and visible light
Due to photo-oxidation of pre-existing melanin
What are Mee's lines?
transverse white lines that affect all nails, grow out with nail growth
arsenic poisoning, rheumatic fever, CHF, leprosy, significant systemic disease
What lab abnormality is associated with mixed cryoglobulinemia associated with HCV?
elevated rheumatoid factor
What underlying malignancy is MC with hypetrichosis lanuginosa acquisita?
Lung carcinoma
Abrupt onset of downy, soft, non-pigmented hair of the face, trunk, and extremities
+/- glossitis
Hyperkeratotic follicular nasal papules have been described as a paraneoplastic sign in the setting of which neoplasm?
Multiple myeloma
What conditions are more commonly associated with Crohn's?
Oral disease
Fissures and fistulae cutaneous metastatic disease
PAN
What conditions are more commonly associated with UC?
EN
pyoderma gangrenosum
pyoderma vegetans
What meds cause photoonycholysis?
Tetracyclines
Quinolones
Psoralens
Quinine
Gene defect in Mafucci's syndrome
PTH receptor protein
Inceased risk of chondrosarcoma
Etiology of bullous tinea pedis
T mentagrophytes
Ananas comosus causes an irritant dermatitis attributed to which irritant?
Bromelin
Components of keratohyaline granules?
Profillagrin
Loricrin
Toll-like receptor activated by P. acnes?
TLR-2
What determines differences in skin color?
# and size of melanosomes
(# of melanocytes is same in all skin types)
Septate hyphae with 90� branching and thick walled barrel shaped arthroconidia alternating with empty cells best describes the microscopic morphology of?
Coccidioides immitis
Hutchinson's teeth are a feature of which stage of syphilis
late congenital
Plummer's nails associated with what disease?
hypothyroidism
MC cancer in Cowden's?
breast cancer
Main deterrent to staphylococcal infection of the skin ?
neutrophils
What type of amyloid loses birefrigence with potassium permanganate?
Secondary systemic amyloid (AA) loses its birefringence after treatment with potassium permanganate
Not sure for amyloid in primary and localized forms
An infant with failure to thrive has multiple xanthomas on skin exam and foamy histiocytes on bone marrow biopsy--diagnosis?
Neimann-Pick Type A
AR, sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1
Palmoplantar keratoderma with deafness is caused by a defect in which gene?
mitochondrial serine transferase RNA
Defect in Papillon-lefevre and another disease with same defect
cathepsin C lysososomal papain like cysteine proteinase
Haim-Munk
Cause of acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans?
Borrelia afzelii
Transmitted by Ixodes ricinus
The main cytokine secreted by Th1 CD8+ effector T-cells
IFN-gamma
Which cytokine is the main macrophage-activating cytokine?
ifn-gamma
HLA associated with chronic idiopathic urticaria
HLA -DR4, -DRB4 53, and -DQ8
HLA associated w/ herpes simplex virus-related erythema multiforme?
HLA-B15
What is a chloroma?
Granulocytic sarcoma
tumor of immature granulocytic cells
Greenish discoloration due to MPO production
MC location for chloroma?
Bone
MC associated condition in chloroma?
AML
Risk factors for acquiring sporotrichosis?
animal handling
alcoholism
Genetic disease associated with pretibial hyperpigmentation?
Wilson's disease
Surgical margin for Merkel cell carcinoma
3cm
A 43 year-old man with uncontrolled HIV disease presents with yellowish, red papules, draining sinuses and ulcers perianally and periurethrally. Which histopathological or immunohistochemical stain may aid in diagnosis?
Von Kossa

Describes malakoplakia; Michaelis-Gutman bodies (calcified laminated intracytoplasmic bodies)
The first site in body that shows yellowish pigmentation in carotenoderma is?
face
(Carotene is excreted by sebaceous glands and in sweat)
Psoriatic nail changes involving nail bed?
salmon spots
oil spots
onycholysis
subungual hyperkeratosis
splinter hemorrhages
Psoriatic nail changes involving nail matrix?
pits
leukonychia
The proteins that make up the cornified cell envelope are synthesized in the:
Spinous and granular layer
MOA of denileukin diftitox?
diphtheria fusion toxin that targets the IL-2 receptor
Systemic tx alternative for recalcitrant CTCL
Patients with x-linked icthyosis are more prone to getting which two malignancies?
Testicular cancer
ALL
Which genetic defect could explain cutaneous findings in addition to abnormal immunoglobulin levels, recurrent respiratory infections, hypogonadism, and an increased risk of leukemia and lymphoma?
RecQL3
The most common laboratory abnormality in patients treated with isotretinoin is:
hypertriglycerides
A patient with Klinefelter Syndrome may be expected to experience which of the following:
Recurrent leg ulcers (due to numerous varicosities)
Which immunosuppressive drug binds iron and thereby significantly prevents absorption?
mycophenolate mofetil
Medications associated with IUD failure?
NSAIDs
azathioprine
Receptor expressed by naive T cells?
CD45RA
Characteristics of XLR inheritance?
Sons of carriers: 50% risk of being affected
Daughters of carriers have a 50% risk of being carriers.
http://
Characteristics of XLD inheritance?
If father has disease, 100% of his daughters and 0% of his sons will have it
If mother has disease, 50% of sons and daughters will have it
What is the Weil-Felix test and which Ricketsial disease will be negative?
Cross-reaction between antigens from the gram-negative Proteus vulgaris species and Rickettsia spp
Negative in Ricketssial pox
MC causative agent for ecthyma?
GABHS
How long after cutaneous infiltration of lidocaine with epinephrine is maximal vasoconstriction achieved?
Vasoconstrictive effects of epinephrine:15 minutes to fully develop
Anesthetic properties of lidocaine: effect within minutes
A whitish, heaped and convoluted colony with growth submerged into the agar and a colorless reverse was isolated from the scalp of a 35-year-old male. The organism did not produce any conidia. The diagnosis most likely is:
T. schonlenii
Produces a white cerebriform colony lacking any conidia
Which of the antiviral agents is NOT phosphorylated by viral thymidine kinase?
cidofovir
Primary cytokine that medidates Jarisch Herxheimer reaction?
TNF alpha
Drug-induced effect caused by bacterial endotoxins or microbial antigens liberated by destruction of micoorganisms
Two subsets of subcutaneous panniculitis-like T cell lymphoma?
1) CD8+, indolent course, alpha/beta TCR +
2) CD56+, gamma/delta TCR+, systemic hemophagocytosis, high mortality
Path finding in subctuaneous panniculitis-like T cell lymphoma?
Bean bag cells
Goblet cells are seen in which type of cyst?
bronchogenic cyst
Staging for SCC?
T0: in situ
T1: <2cm
T2: 2-4cm
T3: > 4cm in diameter
T4: invasive of muscle, cartilage, or bone
HPV type associated with periungual SCC?
HPV 16
Slimy, mucoid colony that produces urease?
Cryptococcus neoformans
Shoulder pad sign?
Systemic amyloidosis (due to direction deposition of amyloid in deltoid muscles)
Associations with Terry's nails?
Diabetes
CHF
cirrhosis
Genodermatosis associated with trichorrhexis nodosa and red fluorescence of the hair?
Arininosuccinic aciduria
MR, physical retardation, convulsions, liver enlargement
sesquiterpene lactone is found in which plants?
ragweed, pyrethrum, chrysanthemum, weeds, feverfew, and artichoke
What does fillagrin break down into?
Urocanic acid & Pyrrolidone carboxylic acid
Both hydrate the stratum corneum & block UV radiation

(Major UVA filter, max absorption at 345nm)
What does this mutation in cystathionine beta-synthetase cause other than an accumulation of homocystine?
abnormal crosslinking of collagen
Itch is most commonly transmitted by which type of nerve fibers?
C-polymodal nociceptor class nerves
Which element is necessary for melanin production?
copper
Cutaneous warts in renal transplant recipients show increased expression of which keratin?
K13
The hair follicle is the site of production or conversion of which hormones?
Testosterone to DHT via 5-alpha reductase
Cleaves proopiomelanocortin to ACTH, alpha-MSH, & B-endorphin via prohormone convertase
Secretes CRH, prolactin
The finding on DIF that reflects binding of the Ro and La antigens in subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus is:
Granular fluorescence throughout the cytoplasm and nucleus of basal keratinocytes
What is responsible for maintaining a barrier to water loss in the stratum corneum?
Odland bodies
Embryologically, epidermal stratification occurs at approximately what estimated gestational age?
8 weeks
On what cell type is CD14 expressed?
Monocytes & macrophages
LPS binds to LPS binding protein and complexes with CD14
CD14 interacts w/ TLR4, which then activates NFkB
Type VII collagen in found in anchoring fibrils and also in:
amnion
Which signaling molecule mediates the transition of hair cycling from telogen to anagen phase?
sonic hedgehog
The formation of granulation tissue depends on the presence of? type of collagen making up granulation tissue?
fibronectin
collagen III
When do melanocytes begin to synthesize melanin?
3rd month of gestation
The main permeability barrier in the lamina densa is?
heparan sulfate proteoglycan
Once a keratinocyte leaves the basal cell layer, the normal transit time to stratum corneum is at least?
14 days

Then another 14 days transit time thru SC to desquamation
At what estimated gestational age are all layers of the keratinized epidermis identifiable?
24 weeks
On electron microscopy, which cell demonstrates cytoplasmic projections and secretory granules?
mast cell
All mononuclear phagocytic cells in the dermis express?
CD6, CD11c
free nerve endings found at the orifice of the hair follicle and particularly sensitive to cold?
Papillary nerve endings
mucocutaneous receptors found on the glans penis, clitoris, labia minora, perianal area, and vermillion border of the lips?
Krause end bulbs
The proteins that make up the cornified cell envelope are synthesized in what layer?
spinous and granular cell layer
What is the major component of lamellar granules of the keratinocytes?
ceramides
During embryogenesis, periderm cells of the fetus contain which of the following substances?
glycogen
Human sebum is distinguished from lipids of internal organs by the presence of?
wax esters
Retinoids upregulate transcription of which types of collagen?
1 and 7
The greatest density of mast cells is found in the?
papillary dermis
Meds that induce or exacerbate psoriasis?
lithium, B-Blockers, antimalarials, and interferon
terbinafine, calcium channel blockers (nicardipine, nifedipine, nisoldipine, verapamil, and diltiazem), captopril, glyburide, and lipi-lowering drugs such as gemfibrozil
Children/adolescents with DLE are more or less likely to develop SLE?
More likely

Also increased incidence of renal involvement
Which cytokine has been imnplicated in the etiology of dermatomyositis?
TNF-alpha
Ab associated with penicillamine-induced lupus?
anti-dsDNA
Which vascular disorder is characterized by facial vascular malformation and ipsilateral intracranial and retinal arteriovenous malformations(AVMs)?
Bonnet Dechaune Blanc syndrome
Eponym for cutis marmorata telangectasia congenita?
Von Lohuizen's disease
Inheritance and gene defect in orofaciodigital syndrome?
XLD, CXORF5 gene
Malformations of the face, oral cavity, and digits
Associated with polycystic kidney disease and variable CNS involvement (40%)
Which disease is found more commonly in mothers of patients with chronic granulomatous disease?
discoid lupus, infections and apthous stomatitis
Clinical features of Riley Day?
hyperhidrosis, decreased corneal sensation and tear flow, hypersalivation, gastroesophageal reflux, decreased deep tendon reflexes, lack of pain sensation, absent fungiform papillae
Gene defect in Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome?
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2
craniosynostosis, ciutis gyrata, acanthosis nigricans, anogenital anomalies, skin tags, prominent umbilical stump, furrowed palms and soles
Gene defect in lymphedema-ptosis syndrome?
MFH1
MC ocular finding in CMTC?
glaucoma
The development of which malignancy is most commonly associated with lymphomatoid papulosis?
mycosis fungoides, a CD30-positive large T-cell lymphoma or Hodgkin's disease
Gene defect in Christ-Siemens-Tourraine syndrome?
Aka: anhydrotic ectodermal dysplasia
Ectodysplasin A
Palmoplantar keratoderma with deafness is caused by a defect in which gene?
mitochondrial serine transferase RNA
Cancers associated with Birt-Hogg-Dube?
Renal cell carcinoma
Medullary thyroid carcinoma
Colon carcinoma
The syndrome characterized by generalized mild hyperkeratosis, erythematous keratotic plaques, palmoplantar keratoderma, non-progressive sensorineural deafness, progressive bilateral keratitis with secondary blindness is:
KID syndrome
Hypoplasia of the breast can be seen in which disease?
anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia
What nail change is seen in patients with Mal de Meleda Syndrome?
subungual hyperkeratosis, koilonychia
MC eye abnormality in Rothmund-Thomson syndrome?
40-50% of patients will develop juvenile cataracts before puberty
Systemic complications in Hermansky-Pudlak?
Bleeding diathesis
Pulmonary fibrosis
Granulomatous colitis
Cardiomyopathy
Latter 3 due to accumulation of ceroid lipofuscin in macrophages
What are the 3 P's associated with Wiskott-Aldrich?
Pruritus (atopic dermatitis), Purpura (thrombocytopenia leading to purpura and other bleeding) and pyogenic infections
Which of the following syndromes is characterized by follicular atrophoderma, hypohidrosis, hypotrichosis and multiple basal cell carcinomas?
Bazex syndrome
MC malignancy associated with Li-Fraumeni syndrome?
soft tissue sarcomas (among MC), breast caner, brain tumors, acute leukemia, and adrenal cortical carcinoma
MCC tinea versicolor?
M. globosa
Cause of positive blood culture in neutropenic patient with onychomycosis
Fusarium
Cause of tinea corporis gladiotorum
T. Tonsurans
Candida species likely to cause disseminated Candida with cutaneous lesions
C. tropicalis
Three causes of favus?
T. schonlenii
T. violaceum
M. gypseum
Organism responsible for bullous tinea pedis?
T. mentagrophytes
Amblyomma americanum (Lone Star Tick) associated with which diseases?
RMSF, Tularemia, human monocytic ehrlichiosis
Dermacentor spp. (Rocky Mountain Wood Tick) vector for which diseases
RMSF, Colorado Tick Fever (caused by an RNA arbovirus), Q fever, Tularemia, Ehrlichiosis & tick paralysis
Ixodes scapularis--vector for what?
Lyme
Babesiosis
Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis
Vector for Borrelia duttoni (relapsing fever)
Ornithodoros spp
Can cause tick paralysis
Diseases carried by hedgehogs?
T. mentag
Salmonella
MAI, M. marinum
Diseases carried by flying squirrel?
T. gondii
Staph
Rickettsia prowasekii
Diseases carried by iguana?
Serratia marcescens
Herpes type virus
Salmonella
Diseases associated with chinchilla?
Colonized with:
Trichophyton mentagrophytes
Microsporum gypseum
Carriers of:
Klebsiella pneumoniae
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Immunocompromised esp. susceptible
Cockatoo transmits which disease?
cryptococcus
Sea cucumber toxin causing conjuctivitis?
holothurin
Allergen in lichen?
D-usnic acid
Vector for borrelia duttoni (relapsing fver)
Ornithodoros
MCC dermatitis in florists?
calcium oxalate (Narcissus, daffodil)
Mechanism of blister formation after cantharidin?
disruption of keratinocyte-keratinocyte adhesion
vector for babesia microti?
Ixodes dammini
Medication associated with acquired brachial dyschromatosis?
ACEI
Gray-brown patches with geographic borders, occasionally interspersed with hypopigmented macules
What is the difference between podophyllin and podophyllotoxin?
Podophyllin, which has the same mechanism of action, contains kaempero and quercetin which are potent mutagens
Primarily UVB blockers
Salicylates, PABA, Padimate O, and cinnamates
The endothelial ligand for cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA) is?
E-selectin
cytokine responsible for woronoff ring?
prostaglandin E2
Main cytokine secreted by Th1 CD8+ effector T-cells
ifn-gamma
cytokine involved in isotype switching from IgM to IgE
IL-13
Cause of chromhidrosis?
lipofusin
chromhidrosis = secretion of pigmented sweat, most commonly yellow, green or black
Reflects lipofuschin content of apocrine sweat.
MC site of involvement of CP?
Oral mucosa
Best screening test for hemochromatosis?
ferritin
Three progestins with low androgenic potential
Desogestril, norgestimate and gestodone
Severe adverse reaction besides cardiotoxicity associated with phenol peel?
laryngeal edema
Which of the following is the major antioxidant in the human epidermis?
alpha-tocopherol
MC bacterial cause of purpura fulminans?
GAS
Culture medium for Leishmaniasis
Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle (NNN) medium
Cause of gastroenteritis after consuming contaminated seafood or shellfish
Vibrio parahemolyticus
IHC stains in DFSP
nestin +, tenascin and stromolyesin negative

Opposite in DF
Two fungal infections associated with PEH
blastomycosis, coccidiodomycosis
Stain for inclusions in infantile digital fibroma
Trichrome: stains red
PTAH
NOT PAS
Ddx for Grenz zone
Acroderm chronica
GF Lepromatous leprosy]Leukemia/lymphoma
Colloid milium
Stains for AFX
vimentin, CD99, procollagen, CD10
HLA associated with pemphigus
HLA-DRw6
3 beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase mutated in what?
CHILD

3 beta hydroxysteroid isomerase (EBP) in Conradi-Hunnerman
Gene defect in XLR chondrodysplasia punctata
aryl sulfatase E
What gene defect would you expect to find in a child with white forelock, dystopia canthorum, and upper limb abnormalities
WS type 3
PAX3
Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma with an indolent course is positive for which of the following?
1) Indolent: CD8, alpha-beta TCR
2) Agressive: sometimes with evidence of systemic hemophagocytosis and high mortality. CD56-positive, gamma-delta T-cell receptor.
Histologic examination of cutaneous metastases from breast cancer is likely to demonstrate:
tumor cells in the lymphatics
An increased number of miniaturized hairs are seen in
alopecia areata
Which marker helps to differentiate extranodal NK-T cell lymphoma from cutaneous gamma delta lymphoma?
Both cutaneous gamma delta lymphoma and extranodal NK-T cell lymphoma are CD56+. However, only extranodal NK-T cell lymphoma is EBV + while cutaneous gamma delta lymphoma is EBV negative.
Intermittent sun exposure with painful sunburns is a predisposing factor for the development of:
atypical nevi and melanoma
The keratoacanthoma variant characterized by the sudden appearance during childhood or adolescence of multiple KAs is called:
Ferguson-Smith
What organism produces round thick walled spiny macroconidia and pear shaped microconidia?
Histoplasma capsulatum
The most sensitive microscopic test for fungal infection is:
calcofluor white: glucan specific immunofluorescent stain
Causes of relapsing fever
Tick borne: Borrelia duttoni (Ornithodoros)
Louse-borne: Borrelia recurrentis (Pediculus humanis corporis)
Where do you see Gamma-Favre bodies
LGV
Chlamydia trachomatis L1-3
Tx: doxy x 3 wks
A 43 year-old man with uncontrolled HIV disease presents with yellowish, red papules, draining sinuses and ulcers perianally and periurethrally. Which histopathological or immunohistochemical stain may aid in diagnosis?
Von Kossa
Dx: malakoplakia
Due to S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, or E. coli; characterized by Michelis-Gutmann bodies (foamy eosinophilic macrophages containing calcified, laminated, intracytoplasmic bodies)
Pili Annulati is associated with which syndrome?
alopecia areata
Proximal white subungual onychomycosis with polydactylous involvement needs at least one laboratory test
HIV: means CD4 count is less than 450
What do "oriental" and "bavarian" tiger balms react with respectively
Oriental: Balsam of peru
Bavarian: rosin
A 47 year old park ranger developed a diffuse, erythematous, eczematous eruption after fighting a forest fire. What is the most likely allergen causing this airborn contact dermatitis?
Lichen causes airborne allergic contact dermatitis in lumberjacks, forest workers, and people exposed to firewood, funeral wreaths, and masculine fragrances. The primary allergen is d-usnic acid.
MCC ecthyma
GABHS
TOC for DFSP
Mohs
WLE with 3cm margins
Gene defect in PAPA
CD2 binding protein
pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, acne
Cutaneous finding seen with thiotepa?
hyperpigmentation in occluded areas, like axilla
Chemo agents most likely to cause intense flushing
dacarbazine and carmustine
Chemo agent causing hyperpigmentation of the teeth with discoloration of the gingival margins
cyclophosphamide
Class of medications associated with acquired brachial dyschromatosis?
ACEI
asymptomatic, gray-brown patches with geographic borders, occ w/ interspersed hypopigmented macules, on dorsal forearms, mostly bilaterally, in middle aged women. Epidermal atrophy, basal layer hyperpigmentation, elastosis and angiectases were histopathologic features.
Topical antibiotic that inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by complexing with the carrier protein C55-prenol pyrophosphatase.
bacitracin
Formation of granulation tissue depends on presence of what?
fibronectin
Frequent causes of anagen effluvium (chemo agents)
doxorubicin, nitrosureas, cyclophosphamide
most common genetic alteration seen in mucosal melanomas?
KIT
seen in acral melanomas as well
Topical med associated with eruptive epidermoid cysts
imiquimod
Filler contraindicated in pt with h/o anaphylaxis or severe drug allergies?
restylane
Which topical antiseptic works via denaturation of proteins
alcohol

Chlorhexidine, hexachlorophene, and triclosan disrupt the microbial cell membrane. Iodine and iodophores work via oxidation/substitution for elemental form of iodine, thereby precipitating proteins.
Paradoxical darkening has been associated with Q-switched ruby, Q-switched alexandrite, Q-switched Nd:Yag treatment of which tattoo color?
white, red, flesh colored
Which potential complications is seen exclusively with phenol peels
laryngeal edema
Criteria with worst prognosis for a patient with a squamous cell carcinoma?
depth of invasion >4 mm and size > 2cm demonstrate the greatest risk for metastasis.
Which anesthetic has the shortest duration of action?
procaine
Which of the following is the major antioxidant in the human epidermis?
alpha tocopherol
A patient undergoing Mohs surgery undergoes a rotation flap from the lateral canthus/cheek to close an infraorbital defect. What is the name of this flap?
mustarde flap
Which of the following is a complication of Thermage treatment?
lipoatrophy
Which organism causes peliosis?
Peliosis hepatitis are seen in bacillary angiomatosis caused by Bartonella henselae which usually occurs in patients with AIDS.
Cantharidin creates a vesicle by which of the following mechanisms
isruption of keratinocyte-keratinocyte adhesion
MC internal manifestation of systemic sclerosis
esophageal dysmotility
9-year-old boy presents with calcinosis cutis, periorbital violaceous erythema, and periungual telangiectasias. Which substance is most likely to be elevated in this patient?
thrombospondin 1
Antigen in LP pemphigoides
BPAg2
Maternal and fetal risk with impetigo herpetiformis
Placental insufficiency
Mom: renal or cardiac failure
Presence of what sways melanin pathway towards pheomelanin
cysteine
Risk factors for post-transplant CTCL?
renal transplant, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, and male sex.
Dermatomyositis drug like reaction
hydroxyurea
d-penicillamine
phenytoni
alfuzosin
statins