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117 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Budd-Chiari syndrome (posthepatic venous thrombosis)
Achiles tendon xanthoma
Familial hypercholesterolemia (decreased LDL receptor signaling
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Waterhous-Friderichsen syndrome (meningococcmia)
Arachnodactyly, lens dislocation, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
Marfan's syndrome (fibrillin defect)
Athelete with polycythemia
Erythropoetin injection
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Pott's disease (vertebral tuberculosis)
bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Sarcoidosis (noncaseating granulomas)
Blue sclera
Osteogenesis imperfecta (collagen type 1 defect)
bluish line on gingiva
Burton's line (lead poisoning)
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Paget's disease of bone (increased osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity)
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
Aortic regurgitation
"butterfly" facial rash and raynaud's phenomenon in young female
systemic lupus erythematosus
cafe-au-lait spots, lisch nodules (iris hamartoma)
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (+ pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas)

Neurofibromatosis type 2 (+ bilateral acoustic neuromas)
Cafe-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
McCune-Albright syndrome (mosaic G-protein signaling mutation)
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Muscular dystrophy (most commonly Duchenne's): x-linked recessive deletion of dystrophin gene
"Cherry-red spot" on macula
Tay-Sachs (ganglioside accumulation) or Niemann-Pick (sphingomyelin accumulation), central retinal artery occlusion
Chest pain on exertion
Angina (stable: moderate exertion; unstable: minimal exertion; Prinzmetal's: at rest or no association)
Chest pain, pericardial effusion/friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Dressler's syndrome (autoimmune-mediated post-MI fibrinous pericarditis, 1-12 weeks after acute episode)
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Gowers' sign (Duchenne muscular dystophy)
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spreads to body
"Slapped cheeks" (erythema infectiosum/fifth disease: parvovirus B19)
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
Huntington's disease (autosomal-dominant CAG repeat expansion)
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps, myoglobinuria
McArdle's disease (muscle glycogen phosphorylase deficiency)
Cold intolerance
Hypothyroidism
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
Internuclear ophthalmoplegia (damage to MLF; bilateral [multiple sclerosis], unilateral [stoke])
Continuous "machinery" heart murmor
Patent Ductus Arteriosus (close with indomethacin; open with misoprostol)
Cutaneous/dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Myxedema (caused by hypothyroidism, Graves' disease [periorbital]) - glucosaminoglycans
Dark purple skin/mouth nodules
Kaposi's sarcoma (usually AIDS patients [gay men]: associated with HHV-8
Deep, labored breathing/hyperventilation
Kussmaul breathing (diabetic ketoacidosis)
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea, possibly death
Pellagra (niacin [vitamin B3] deficiency)
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Wet beriberi (thiamine [vitamin B1] deficiency)
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Pasteurella multocida (cellulitis at innoculation site)
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Sjogren's syndrome (autoimmune destruction of exocrine glands)
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Plummer-Binson syndrome (may progress to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma)
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (type III collagen defect)
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Virchow's node (abdominal metastisis, most commonly gastric cancer)
Erythroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
Sezary syndrome (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma) or myocosis fungoides
Fascial muscle spasm upon tapping jaw
Chvostek's sign (hypocalcemia)
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
Acute cholelithiasis (bile duct blockage)
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (rapid lysis of spirochetes results in toxin release) treatment for syphilis is penicillin G
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
B symptoms (lymphoma)
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Peyronie's disease (connective tissue disorder) often d/t trauma
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in a boy
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (HGPRT deficiency, X-linked recessive)
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Kayser-Fleischer rings (copper accumulation from Wilson's disease)
Hamartomatous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth/lips/feet/hands
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (genetic benign polyposis can cause bowel obstruction; increased cancer risk)
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
Gaucher's disease (glucocerebrosidase deficiency)
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Alport syndrome (mutation in alpha chain of collagen IV [basemen membrane])
Hypercoagulability (leading to migrating DVTs and vasculitis)
Trousseau's sign (adenocarcinoma of pancreas or lung)
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperoralitiy, hyperdocility
Kluver-Bucy syndrome (bilateral amygdala lesion)
Hyperreflexia, hypertonia, positive babinski sign
UMN lesion
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis
Conn's syndrome (excessive aldosterone)
Hyporeflexia, hypotonia, atrophy
LMN lesion
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
"Blue bloater" (chonic bronchitis: hyperplasia of mucous cells [increased Reid index >50%])
Indurated, ulcerated genital lesion
Nonpainful: chancre (primary syphilis, treponema pallidum) Painful, with exudate: chancroid (Haemophilus ducreyi)
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Niemann-Pick disease (genetic sphingomyelinase deficiency)
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Cori's disease (debranching enzyme deficiency)
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
Edwards' syndrome (trisomy 18)
Keratin pearls on a skin biopsy
Squamous cell carcinoma
Large rash with bull's-eye appearance
Erythema chronicum migrans from Ixodes tick bite (Lyme disease: Borrelia)
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
Epidural hematoma (middle meningeal artery rupture)
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
Bruton's disease (X-linked agammaglobiulinemia, AKA Bruton's agammaglobulinemia)
Mucosal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (defect in platelet aggregation due to lack of GPIIb/IIIa)
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas/soft tissue tumors, impacted/supernumerary teeth
Gardner's syndrome (subtype of FAP)
Myopathy (infantile hypertrophic cardiomyopathy), exercise intolerance
Pompe's disease (lysosomal alpha-1,4-glucosidase deficiency)
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis
Wegner's (c-ANCA positive) and Goodpasture's syndromes (anti-basement membrane antibodies)
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
Erb-Duschenn palsy (superior trunk [C5-C6] brachial plexus injury: "waiter's tip")
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Sheehan's syndrome (pituitary infarction [usually after significant blood loss])
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia
Multiple sclerosis
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Cheyne-Stokes respirations (central apnea in CHF or increased intracranial pressure)
Painful blue fingers/toes, hemolytic anemia
Cold agglutinin disease (autoimmune hemolytic anemia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae, infectious mononucleosis)
Painful, pale, cold fingers/toes
Raynaud's syndrome (vasospasm in extremeties)
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Osler's node (infective endocarditis)
Painless erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Janeway lesions (infective endocarditis)
Painless jaundice
Cancer of the pancreatic head obstructing bile ducts (could also just be gilbert's or other things)
Palpable purpura on buttocks/legs, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
Henoch-Schonlein purpura (IgA vasculitis affecting skin and kidneys)
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
MEN 1 (autosomal dominant)
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
"Pink puffer" (emphysema: centroacinar [smoking], panacinar [alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency])
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Fanconi's syndrome (proximal tubular reabsorption defect)
Positive anterior "drawer sign"
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury
Ptosis, miosis, anhidrosis
Horner's syndrome (sympathetic chain lesion)
Pupil accomodates but doesn't react
Argyll Robertson pupil (neurosyphilis)
Rapidly progressive leg weaknes that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
Guillain-Barre syndrome (autoimmune acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy)
Rash on palms and soles
Coxsackie A, 2` sphylis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever
Recurrent colds, unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Hyper-IgE syndrome (Job's syndrome: neutrophil chemotaxis abnormality)
Red "currant jelly" sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Klebsiella pneumoniae
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple/areola
Paget's disease of the breast (represents underlying neoplasm)
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBC's
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
Renal cell carcinoma (bilaterally), hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
von Hippel-Lindau disease (dominant tumor suppressor gene mutation)
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Parkinson's disease (nigrostriatal dopamine depletion)
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
Roth spots (bacterial endocarditis)
Severe jaundice in neonate
Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I (congenital unconjugated hyprebilirubinemia) - fatal in early life

type II - less severe and responds to phenobarbital which increases liver enzyme synthesis
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
McBurney's sign (appendicitis)
Short stature, increased incidence of tumors/leukemia, aplastic anemia
Fanconi's anemia (genetic loss of DNA crosslink repair; often progresses to AML)
Single palm crease
Simian crease (Down syndrome)
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis, infertility
Kartagener's syndrome (dynein arm defect affecting cilia)
Skin hyperpigmentation
Addison's disease (1` addrenocortical insufficiency causes increased ACTH and alpha-MSH production)
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Becker's muscular dystophy (x-linked missense mutation in dystrophin; less severe than Duchenne's)
Small, irregular red spots on buccal/lingual mucosa with blue-white centers
Koplik spots (measles; rubeola virus)
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
condylomata lata (2` syphilis)
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Bacterial endocarditis
"Strawberry tongue"
Scarlet fever, Kawasaki disease, toxic shock syndrome
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney, cystic hygroma at birth
Turner syndrome (45XO, short stature, webbed neck, shield chest, lymphedema)
Sudden swollen/painful proximal metatarsalphalangeal joint, tophi
Gout/podagra (hyperuricemia)
Swollen gums, mucous bleeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
Scurvy (Vitamin C deficiency: can't hydroxylate proline/lysine for collagen synthesis)
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
Osteoarthritis (osteophytes on PIP [Bouchard's nodes], DIP [Heberdn's nodes])
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Aortic valve stenosis
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
MEN 2A (autosomal dominant ret mutation)
Thyroid tumors, pheochromoscytoma, ganglioneuromatosis
MEN 2B (autosomal dominant ret mutation)
Toe extension/fanning upon plantar scrape
Babinski sign (UMN lesion)
Unilateral facial drooping involving forehead
Bell's palsy (LMN CN VII palsy)
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
Reactive arthritis associated with HLA-B27
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
Hemangioma (benign, but associated with Sturge-Weber syndrome)
Vomiting lood following esophagogastric lacerations
Mallory-Weiss syndrome (alcoholic and bulimic patients)
"Waxy" casts with very low urine flow
Chronic end-stage renal disease
WBC casts in urine
Acute pyelonephritis
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Whipple's disease (Tropheryma whippelii)
"Worst headach of my life"
Subarachnoid hemorrhage
Flushing, diarrhea, wheezing, salivation, right sided heart murmur
Carcinoid Syndrome (usually a lung or GI [appendix] tumor that secretes seretonin)