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63 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
Variance

SS/(N1)


Standard Deviation

square root of SS/(N1)


Standard Error of the Mean

standard deviation of the population/square root of N
it is the standard deviation of the sampling distribution of the mean 

Power

1beta
where beta is the type II error (the odds of retaining the null hypothesis when it is really false; or the odds of saying there is no result/difference when there really is one) 

singlesample chisquare

1 variable, nominal data


multiplesample chisquare

2 or more variables, nominal data


MannWhitney U test

2 independent groups, ordinal data


Wilcoxon matchedpairs test

2 correlated groups, ordinal data


KruskalWallis test

2 or more independent groups, ordinal data


ttest for single sample

sample vs. population for interval/ratio data


ttest for correlated samples

2 correlated groups, interval/ratio data


ttest for independent samples

2 indepedent groups, interval/ratio data


oneway ANOVA

1 IV, 2 or more independent groups, interval/ratio data


factorial ANOVA

2 or more IVs, interval/ratio data


repeated measures ANOVA

2 or more correlated groups, interval/ratio data


Variance

SS/(N1)


Standard Deviation

square root of SS/(N1)


Standard Error of the Mean

standard deviation of the population/square root of N
it is the standard deviation of the sampling distribution of the mean 

Power

1beta
where beta is the type II error (the odds of retaining the null hypothesis when it is really false; or the odds of saying there is no result/difference when there really is one) 

singlesample chisquare

1 variable, nominal data


multiplesample chisquare

2 or more variables, nominal data


MannWhitney U test

2 independent groups, ordinal data


Wilcoxon matchedpairs test

2 correlated groups, ordinal data


KruskalWallis test

2 or more independent groups, ordinal data


ttest for single sample

sample vs. population for interval/ratio data


ttest for correlated samples

2 correlated groups, interval/ratio data


ttest for independent samples

2 indepedent groups, interval/ratio data


oneway ANOVA

1 IV, 2 or more independent groups, interval/ratio data


factorial ANOVA

2 or more IVs, interval/ratio data


repeated measures ANOVA

2 or more correlated groups, interval/ratio data


mixed ANOVA

independent and correlated groups, interval/ratio data


ANCOVA

removes extraneous variables, interval/ratio data


randomized block ANOVA

extraneous variables, interval/ratio data


trend analysis

quantitative IV, interval/ratio data


MANOVA

2 or more dependent variables, interval/ratio data


SST (sum of squares total)

SST = SSB + SSW
sum of squares between plus sum of squares within 

MST (mean squares total)

MST = SST/df


F

F=MSB/MSW
F=(treatment+error)/error 

Pearson Product Moment (r)

variable 1 = interval or ratio
variable 2 = interval or ratio 

Spearman RankOrder (rho)

variable 1 = rankordered
variable 2 = rankordered 

Phi

variable 1 = true dichotomy
variable 2 = true dichotomy 

Tetrachoric

variable 1 = artificial dichotomoy
variable 2 = artificial dichotomy 

Contingency

variable 1 = nominal
variable 2 = nominal 

Point Biserial

variable 1 = true dichotomoy
variable 2 = interval or ratio 

Biserial

variable 1 = artificial dichotomy
variable 2 = interval or ratio 

Eta

Used to assess nonlinear relationships
variable 1 = interval or ratio variable 2 = interval or ratio 

LISREL

linear structural relations analysis
used when a causal model involves recursive (oneway) and nonrecursive (twoway) paths examines the relationship between observed variables and takes into account latent traits the variables are believed to measure and the effects of measurement error 

Path analysis

translating a theory about the causal relationships into a path diagram


p (item difficulty)

total number of examinees passing the exam/total number of examinees
p=0.5 optimal unless true false test...then p=0.75 optimal 

Item Characteristic Curve (ICC)

constructed for each item
information on the relationship between an examinee's level on the ability or trait and the probablity that they will respond to the item correctly 

Item Response Theory (IRT)

the latent trait model
test scores are reported in terms of an examinee's level on the trait being measured rather than in terms of a total test score makes it possible to equate scores from different sets of items and from different tests 

SpearmanBrown prophecy formula

provides an estimate of what the reliability coefficient would have been had it been based on the full length of the test (or used to say what it would be if the tests were lengthened or shortened)


Cronbach's coefficient alpha

average reliability that would be obtained from all possible splits of the test


KuderRichardson Formula 20 (KR20)

coefficient alpha (split half measure of internal consistency and reliability) used when items are scored dichotomously


kappa statistic

or coefficient concordance
interrater reliability 

Standard Error of the Measurement

=standard deviation of the test scores multiplied by the square root of 1  the reliability coefficient
used to calculate the confidence interval 

multitraitmultimethod matrix

to test convergent and discriminant validity
correlations with different methods of the same trait and the same methods of different traits methods for assessing construct validity 

orthogonal

factors are uncorrelated


oblique

factors are correlated


base rate

(true positive + false negatives)/total number of people


positive hit rate

true positive/total positive


validity and reliability relationships

validity is less than or equal to the reliability


z

=(scoremean)/SD
