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63 Cards in this Set
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Variance

SS/(N1)

Standard Deviation

square root of SS/(N1)

Standard Error of the Mean

standard deviation of the population/square root of N
it is the standard deviation of the sampling distribution of the mean 
Power

1beta
where beta is the type II error (the odds of retaining the null hypothesis when it is really false; or the odds of saying there is no result/difference when there really is one) 
singlesample chisquare

1 variable, nominal data

multiplesample chisquare

2 or more variables, nominal data

MannWhitney U test

2 independent groups, ordinal data

Wilcoxon matchedpairs test

2 correlated groups, ordinal data

KruskalWallis test

2 or more independent groups, ordinal data

ttest for single sample

sample vs. population for interval/ratio data

ttest for correlated samples

2 correlated groups, interval/ratio data

ttest for independent samples

2 indepedent groups, interval/ratio data

oneway ANOVA

1 IV, 2 or more independent groups, interval/ratio data

factorial ANOVA

2 or more IVs, interval/ratio data

repeated measures ANOVA

2 or more correlated groups, interval/ratio data

Variance

SS/(N1)

Standard Deviation

square root of SS/(N1)

Standard Error of the Mean

standard deviation of the population/square root of N
it is the standard deviation of the sampling distribution of the mean 
Power

1beta
where beta is the type II error (the odds of retaining the null hypothesis when it is really false; or the odds of saying there is no result/difference when there really is one) 
singlesample chisquare

1 variable, nominal data

multiplesample chisquare

2 or more variables, nominal data

MannWhitney U test

2 independent groups, ordinal data

Wilcoxon matchedpairs test

2 correlated groups, ordinal data

KruskalWallis test

2 or more independent groups, ordinal data

ttest for single sample

sample vs. population for interval/ratio data

ttest for correlated samples

2 correlated groups, interval/ratio data

ttest for independent samples

2 indepedent groups, interval/ratio data

oneway ANOVA

1 IV, 2 or more independent groups, interval/ratio data

factorial ANOVA

2 or more IVs, interval/ratio data

repeated measures ANOVA

2 or more correlated groups, interval/ratio data

mixed ANOVA

independent and correlated groups, interval/ratio data

ANCOVA

removes extraneous variables, interval/ratio data

randomized block ANOVA

extraneous variables, interval/ratio data

trend analysis

quantitative IV, interval/ratio data

MANOVA

2 or more dependent variables, interval/ratio data

SST (sum of squares total)

SST = SSB + SSW
sum of squares between plus sum of squares within 
MST (mean squares total)

MST = SST/df

F

F=MSB/MSW
F=(treatment+error)/error 
Pearson Product Moment (r)

variable 1 = interval or ratio
variable 2 = interval or ratio 
Spearman RankOrder (rho)

variable 1 = rankordered
variable 2 = rankordered 
Phi

variable 1 = true dichotomy
variable 2 = true dichotomy 
Tetrachoric

variable 1 = artificial dichotomoy
variable 2 = artificial dichotomy 
Contingency

variable 1 = nominal
variable 2 = nominal 
Point Biserial

variable 1 = true dichotomoy
variable 2 = interval or ratio 
Biserial

variable 1 = artificial dichotomy
variable 2 = interval or ratio 
Eta

Used to assess nonlinear relationships
variable 1 = interval or ratio variable 2 = interval or ratio 
LISREL

linear structural relations analysis
used when a causal model involves recursive (oneway) and nonrecursive (twoway) paths examines the relationship between observed variables and takes into account latent traits the variables are believed to measure and the effects of measurement error 
Path analysis

translating a theory about the causal relationships into a path diagram

p (item difficulty)

total number of examinees passing the exam/total number of examinees
p=0.5 optimal unless true false test...then p=0.75 optimal 
Item Characteristic Curve (ICC)

constructed for each item
information on the relationship between an examinee's level on the ability or trait and the probablity that they will respond to the item correctly 
Item Response Theory (IRT)

the latent trait model
test scores are reported in terms of an examinee's level on the trait being measured rather than in terms of a total test score makes it possible to equate scores from different sets of items and from different tests 
SpearmanBrown prophecy formula

provides an estimate of what the reliability coefficient would have been had it been based on the full length of the test (or used to say what it would be if the tests were lengthened or shortened)

Cronbach's coefficient alpha

average reliability that would be obtained from all possible splits of the test

KuderRichardson Formula 20 (KR20)

coefficient alpha (split half measure of internal consistency and reliability) used when items are scored dichotomously

kappa statistic

or coefficient concordance
interrater reliability 
Standard Error of the Measurement

=standard deviation of the test scores multiplied by the square root of 1  the reliability coefficient
used to calculate the confidence interval 
multitraitmultimethod matrix

to test convergent and discriminant validity
correlations with different methods of the same trait and the same methods of different traits methods for assessing construct validity 
orthogonal

factors are uncorrelated

oblique

factors are correlated

base rate

(true positive + false negatives)/total number of people

positive hit rate

true positive/total positive

validity and reliability relationships

validity is less than or equal to the reliability

z

=(scoremean)/SD
