Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

67 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
E.g. nominal scale
eye colour
DSM diagnosis

i.e. unordered categories
E.g. ordinal scale
likert scale

i.e. categories and rank order
E.g. interval scale
IQ scores

i.e. rank order and equal intervals

can add & subtract
What type of measurement?

1. religion
2. IQ score
3. DSM diagnosis
4. height
5. gender
6. likert scale
7. reaction time
8. frequency of agressive acts
1. nominal
2. interval
3. DSM diagnosis
4. interval
5. nominal
6. ordinal
7. ratio
8. ratio
E.g. ratio scale
# calories consumed
reaction time

i.e. rank order, equal intervals AND absolute zero

can multiply & divide
Types of measurement in increasing complexity
N ominal
O rdinal
I nterval
R atio
Cumulative frequency
total number observations that fall at or below each score
the relative peakedness of a distribution

more peaked = leptokurtic
more flat = platykurtic
Skewed distribution
more than half observations fall on one side of distribution

postive = low score
negative = high score
Measure of central tendancy
mode (Mo)
median (Md)
mean (M or X)
Relationship bet measures of central tendency in skewed distributions
positively skewed d:
mean, greater than
median, greater then

negatively skewed d:
mode, greater than
median, greater than
Measures of variance
standard deviation
Def: variance
a measure of variability calculated by dividing the sum of squares

SS / n (population)
SS / n-1 (sample)
Def: standard deviation
square root of the variance

a measure of variability of scores around the mean

SS / n - then take square root
Re: Inferential statistics,

What is a sample statistic used for
to estimate a population parameter
Sampling error
random error responsible for diff bet sample values and population
Sampling distribution of the mean
distribution of means obtained if large number of equal-size random samples are drawn from same population
3 predictions of Central Limit Theorem
1. as sample size increases, sample distribution of mean approaches normal distribution

2. mean of sampling distribution of the mean = population mean

3. SD of sample distribution of the mean = population SD divided by square root of sample size
Def: Standard error of the mean

What does it measure
SD of sampling distribution of the mean

variability due to effects of random error
What happens to standard error when

1. SD larger & sample size smaller

2. SD samller & sample size larger
1. SE larger

2. SE smaller
2-tailed vs 1-tailed hypothesis
2-tailed = nondirectional

1-tailed = directional
rejection / critical region
region of unlikely values

lies in one or both tails of sampling distribution

values occur as a result of sampling error
retention region
region of likely values

lies in central portion of sampling distribution
What happens to hypotheses if sample statistic is in rejection region
null hypothesis is rejected

alternate hypothesis is retained
What happens to hypotheses if sample statistic is in retention region
null hypothesis is retained

alternate hypothesis is rejected
Size of rejection region defined by...

level of significance

note: alpha = 0.05
means 5% in rejection region
Type I error
reject a true null hypothesis
Type II error
retain a false null hypothesis
Statistical "confidence"
certainty about the decision re: null hypothesis
Statistical "power"
ability to reject a false null hypothesis
Parametric tests
evaluate hypotheses about population means, variances etc.

e.g. t-test, ANOVA

interval or ratio scale
non-parametric tests
evaluate hypotheses about shape of distribution

e.g. Mann-Witney U test, Wilcoxon

ordinal or nominal scale
degrees of freedom
N-1 (t-test)

C-1 (chi-square)
What information do you use to select an inferential statistic?
scale of measurement
dependent variable
study design
What statistical test would you use for nominal data?
single-sample Chi-square
multiple-sample Chi-square
What statistical test would you use for ordinal data?
Mann-Witney U-test
Wilcoxon matched pairs test
Kruskal-Wallis test
What are the non-parametric alternatives to:

1. independent t-test
2. correlated t-test
3. one-way ANOVA
1. Mann-Witney
2. Wilcoxon
3. Kruskal-Wallis
What statistical tests would you use for interval and ration data?
Name types of t-test
simple sample
independent samples (between)
correlated samples (within)
Name types of ANOVA
factorial (2-way, 3-way)
randomized block factorial
repeated measures
mixed (split-plot)
When use one-way ANOVA vs. factorial ANOVA?
one-way = 1 IV

factorial = 2+ IVs
What are the Post Hoc tests for ANOVA?
Scheffe's S test
Tukey's HSD test
Fisher's LSD test
Which Post Hoc test is least vulnerable to Type I Error, but more vulnerable to Type II error?
Which Post Hoc test is least vulnerable to Type II Error, but more vulnerable to Type I error?
The numerator of the f-ratio is a measure of variablity due to...?
treatment effects & error
In ANOVA, the "mean square within" provides info about:
sampling fluctuations
Why use one-way ANOVA instead of seperate t-tests?
to reduce Type I error rate
How do you calculate f-ratio?
How do you calculate MSB?
How do you calculate MSW?
1+ IV
2+ DV (interval/ratio)

*helps increase statistical power by assessing effects of IV on all DVs
Ex: planned "a priori" analysis (4)
Dunn-Bonferroni t
linear contrasts
orthogonal comparisons
trend analysis
Axis on scattergram
X = IV = predictor
Y = DV = criterion
Which correlation coefficient is most commonly used with...

1. interval and ratio data
2. rank data
3. nominal data
1. Pearson r (also Eta)
2. Spearman rank
3. Contingency (C)
How do you translate correlation coefficient score into something meaninful?
calculate coefficient of determination to provide a measure of shared (explained) variability.

- square the coefficient

e.g. if coefficient is .60,
.60 x .60 = .36,
.36 x 100 = 36%,

therefore, 36% of scores on DV explained by IV... remaining 64% is unexplained variance.
Use: regression analysis
to predict a score on a criterion (DV) based on person's obtained score on predictor (IV).
How do you locate a regression line
least squares criterion
Use: multiple regression
2+ continuous or discrete predictors

1 criterion
Ex: multiple regression
1. simultaneous (simple)
2. stepwise
3. hierarchical
When use multiple regression instead of ANOVA?
if groups are unequal in size

if IVs on a continuous scale
Use: canonical correlation
[an extension of mult reg]

2+ continuous predictors

2+ continuous criterions
Ex: multivariate techniques (4)
multiple regression

canonical correlation

discriminant function analysis

logistic regression
Ex: bivariate correlational techniques (2)

correlation coefficient
Ex: bivariate prediction (1)
regression analysis
Ex: multivariate techniques (2)
path analysis

Ex: correlation & prediction tehcniques (4 main)
bivariate correlational techniques

bivariate prediction

multivariate techniques: correlation & prediction

multivariate techniques: causal modeling
Use: discriminant function analysis
2+ continuous predictors
1 discrete criterion