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28 Cards in this Set

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What is the mean of the data?
The average

to be "mean" is average
What is the median?
The "center" of the data, with half of the numbers above, and half below it.

this one you add them all up and divide
What is the mode?
The common value

mode=most
What are outliers?
numbers that fall far from the rest of the data.
What is a stemplot?
remember it looks like:

2l5345
3l2
4l673
5l
6l00

etc.
What is a categorical or qualitative variable?
Those that divide subjects into groups but don't allow any sort of mathematcial operations to be performed on the data.
What are the variables for which the responses are meaningful numeric values?
Measurement variables
What are nominal variables?
categorical variables for which the categories don't have a natural odering. (eye color ethnicity, home state)
ordinal variables
categorical variables for which the categories have a natural odering. (classification (fresh. soph. junior. senior.) likert scale (strongly disagree, somewhat disagree.etc.
what are interval variables?
measurement variable for which differences are consistent, but ratios are not.
What are ratio variables?
measurement variables for which ratios are consistant...age, height, distance, number of chairs in a room
What is a descrete measurement variable?
one with a countable number of possible responses
What is a continuous measurement variable?
one that may assume any number in some interval.
What are some types of bias in a question?
asking the uninformed, ordering of questions, unnecessary complexity
What is variability?
discrepancies between repeated measurements
Validity vs. reliability?
valid: measures what is intended to measure.
reliable:gives approx. the same result when repeated on the same subject.
confidentiality vs. anonymity
confidential: respondents identities are known but protected.
Anonymous: respondents identities are unknown
What is a unit?
asingle individual or object.
What is a population?
a collection of all units of interest
What is a sample?
a collection of units upon which we actually take the measure ments
How do you get a stratified random sample?
divide the population into groups (strata) and then collect a simple random sample from each group
How do you get a CLUSTER SAMPLE?
dvide population into groups (clusters). Take a simple random cample of clusters and measure all units within the selected clusters.

Every subject from SOME groups.
What is systematic sampling?
select units from teh frame according to a set pattern. Every 10th person, etc.
What is multi-stage sampling?
combines two or more procedures
What is a response variable (RESP)?
primary measurement of interest. Usually a study considers one RESP
What is a confounding variable?
a variable that is relate to both the EXPL and the RESP. It is an extraneous difference int eh groups.
What is an interacting variable?
a variable that interacts with the EXPL and changes thw ay the groups compare with respect to the RESP.
If you are comparing two groups, you compare them based on the RESP, the group is the EXPL....
for example. You compare alcholocis....RESP. They are divorced or married....EXPL