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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
STATISTICS P.2
1. SCIENCE OF COLLECTING AND ORGANIZING AND INTERPRETING DATA

2. DATA THAT SUMMARIZE SOMETHING
POPULATION P.3
WHAT IS THE COMPLETE SET OF PEOPLE OR THINGS BEING STUDIED
POPULATION PARAMETERS P3
THE SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE POPULATION
EX. ALL PEOPLE OVER SIX FT TALL
SAMPLE P3
A SMALL CROSS SECTION OF THE PEOPLE OR THINGS THAT FIT THE PARAMETER
RAW DATA P4
ACTUAL MEASUREMENTS OR OBSERVATIONS OF THE SAMPLE
SAMPLE STATISTICS P4
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SAMPLE FOUND BY CONSOLIDATING THE RAW DATA
MARGIN OF ERROR P5
THE ERROR IS THE AMOUNT OF PEOPLE OR THINGS THAT WOULD HAPPEN BY ACCIDENT
+ OR - A %
BASIC STEPS IN A STAT STUDY P7
1. STATE THE GOAL PRECISELY-DETERMINE THE POP
2. DRAW FROM THE POPULATION A
3. SAMPLE-WITH RAW DATA AND SUMMARIZE, THEN
4. SAMPLE STATISTICS- FROM THE POP PARAMETERS, AND FINALLY
5. DRAW CONCLUSIONS
PURPOSE OF STAT P8
TO MAKE EDUCATED DECISIONS
SALK STUDY-POLIO P9
EXP GROUP-2ND GRADERS IN US

CONTROL-1ST AND 3RD GRADERS
CENSUS P11
A COLLECTION OF EVERY MEMBER OF A POPULATION
REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE P12
CONTAINS AS MANY SIMILARITIES AS POSSIBLE
RANDOM SAMPLE P12
KEEPS THE HUMAN ELEMENT OUT OF THE CHOICE OF MEMBERS
BIAS P12
BIAS TENDS TO FAVOR CERTAIN RESULTS
SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLE P13
EVERY THING HAS AN EQUAL CHANCE OF BEING CHOSEN
SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING P14
TEST EVERY 50TH OR SO TO REMAIN RANDOM
CONVENIENCE SAMPLE P15
CHOOSE A GROUP EG. THE STAT CLASS AND ASK A QUESTION (LEFT HANDED)
CLUSTER SAMPLE P15
ALL MEMBERS OF A RANDOMLY SELECTED GROUP IS A CLUSTER
CATEGORICAL N
YES OR NO
QUANTITATIVE
HAS TO DO WITH A #
QUALITATIVE
HAS TO DO WITH A SPECIFIC #
INTERVAL N
THE RANGE INCLUDING THE MARGIN OF ERROR
¯a=mean number=25 N

a=age
same as front
STRATIFIED SAMPLE P16
SAMPLES FROM EACH STRATUM
STRATA
SAMPLE FROM A LARGER GROUP, BROKEN INTO SUB GROUPS ARE STRATA
SUBJECTS OF A STUDY P21
SUBJECTS ARE ANYTHING BUT PEOPLE...
PEOPLE ARE PARTICIPANTS
TYPES OF STUDIES N
OBSERVATIONAL VS. EXPERIMENTAL
CONFOUNDING N
NEGLECTING AN IMPORTANT VARIABLE THAT MAKES THE STUDY WORTHLESS
PLACEBO EFFECT N
GIVE PEOPLE A PILL THAT ISN'T MEDICATION AND IT STILL HELPS
EXPERIMENTER EFFECT N
HAVING THE EXPERIMENTER TX TWO GROUPS DIFFERENTLY
SINGLE-BLIND EXP P27
PARTICIPANTS DON'T KNOW WHO HAS THE DRUG BUT THE EXPERIMENTER DOES
DOUBLE-BLIND EXP P27
NEITHER THE PARTICIPANT OR EXPERIMENTER KNOW WHO HAS THE DRUG
META-ANALYSIS P30
COMPILING A # OF STUDIES TO COMPARE OUTCOMES
variable p39
something that can take different values
VARIABLES OF INTEREST P39
VARIABLES THAT WOULD EFFECT A STUDY
QUANTITATIVE VALUES P48
DISCRETE CONTINUOUS

ONLY WHOLE #'S ANY #,
INC. FRAC
LEVELS OF MEASUREMENT

NOMINAL QUALITATIVE

ORDINAL(INTERVAL MEANS SOMETHING)
QUALITATIVE-
NO ORDER

NATURAL ORDER
MEASUREMENT N

INTERVAL QUANTITATIVE

RATIO (ABSOLUTE STARTING PT.
INTERVAL-DIF HAVE MEANING, BUT RATIOS DON'T

RATIO-RATIO HAS MEANING..CAN BE WRITTEN AS A FRACTION
EXPERIMENTATION-DATA ETHICS FOR HUMANS
1. INFORMED CONSENT

2. CONFIDENTIALITY (VS. ANONYMITY)

3. INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD
(PROFESSIONAL COMM THAT
GUARDS ETHICS)