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23 Cards in this Set

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Political viewpoint with origins in Western Europe in the 19th century; often allied with one of other "isms"; urged importance of national unity; valued a collective identity based on culture, race, or ethnic origin.
Open Door Policy
The maintenance in a certain territory of equal commercial and industrial rights for the nationals of all countries. As a specific policy, it was first advanced by the United States, but it was rooted in the typical most favored nation clause of the treaties concluded with China after the Opium War (1839-42).
Opium War
Fought between the British and Qing China beginning in 1839; fought to protect British trade in opium; resulted in resounding British victory, opening of Hong Kong as British port of trade.
Otto von Bismark
aristocrat and statesman of the nineteenth century. As Prime Minister of Prussia from 1862 to 1890, he engineered the unification of the numerous states of Germany. He served as the first Chancellor of the German Empire from 1871 to 1890; he is nicknamed the Iron Chancellor.
Ottoman Empire
Turkic empire established in Asia Minor and eventually extending throughout Middle East; responsible for conquest of Constantinople and end of Byzantine Empire in 1453; succeeded Seljuk Turks following retreat of Mongols.
Three districts that made up the bulk of the directly ruled British territories in India; capitals at Madras, Calcutta, and Bombay.
Prince Menelik II
Ethiopian emperor (1889–1913) who established independence from Italy and expanded Ethiopia's borders through military conquests.
Princely States
Domains of Indian princes allied with the British Raj; agents of East India Company were stationed at the rulers' courts to ensure compliance; made up over one-third of the British Indian Empire.
Robert Clive
Architect of British victory at Plassey; established foundations of British Raj in northern India (18th century).
Ritual in India of immolating surviving widows with the bodies of their deceased husbands.
Troops that served the British East India Company; recruited from various warlike peoples of India.
Sepoy Rebellion
857–1858 was a period of armed uprising and rebellions in mostly northern and central India against British colonial rule on the subcontinent. The war caused the end of the British East India Company's rule in India, and led to a century of direct rule of India by Britain: the British Raj.
Sick Man of Europe
Ottoman Empire was dismissed by Nicholas I of Russia as "the sick man of Europe", as it was increasingly falling under the financial control of the European powers and continually lost territory in a series of disastrous wars. This view led the Allies in World War I to dangerously underestimate their opponent, leading to the disastrous Dardanelles Campaign.
Social Darwinism
A philosophical application of Darwin's theory of natural selection; states that some races or peoples are more fit for survival than others and are therefore designed by nature to dominate inferior races.
Sphere of influence
An area under the economic and military control of one imperial power.
Suez Canal
A canal linking the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. It was a vital trade route in the British Empire during imperialism, and continues to link North Africa and Europe to Asia today.
Sun Yat-sen( Sun Yixian)
Chinese nationalist leader who fought to end foreign domination. He formed the Kuomintang, or Nationalist Party, which overthrew the Manchu Dynasty and established a republican form of government in its place.
Taiping rebellion
Peasant rebellion of China, led by Hong Xiuquan against the Qing dynasty during 1850-64; occupied the southern half of China and adopted a series of radical reform programs; defeated by regional armies of the Qing aided by European advisors and weapons.(1851-1864)
eudal military dictatorship of Japan established in 1603 by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family until 1868. This period is known as the Edo period and gets its name from the capital city of Edo, now Tokyo. The Tokugawa shogunate ruled from Edo castle until the Meiji Restoration.
Treaty of Nanking ( Nanjing)
the agreement which marked the end of the First Opium War between the United Kingdom and China.
World War I
Fought from 1914 to 1918; involved almost all European nations and their respective colonies; arose over conflict in the Balkans; resulted in victory of allied countries of Britain, France, Italy, and the United States; ended with Treaty of Versailles
World War II
global conflict that began on 7 July 1937, in Asia and 1 September 1939, in Europe and lasted until 1945, involving the majority of the world's countries and every inhabited continent. Virtually all countries that participated in World War I were involved in World War II. It was the most extensive and expensive armed conflict in the history of the World.
Great banking and industrial companies of modern Japan, called keiretsu after World War II. Mitsubishi is a leading zaibatsu.