Study your flashcards anywhere!
Download the official Cram app for free >
 Shuffle
Toggle OnToggle Off
 Alphabetize
Toggle OnToggle Off
 Front First
Toggle OnToggle Off
 Both Sides
Toggle OnToggle Off
 Read
Toggle OnToggle Off
How to study your flashcards.
Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key
Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key
H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key
A key: Read text to speech.a key
246 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
aggregate data

data based on larger group from smaller


alternative forms method

measuring the same variable different ways with two equal forms


analysis of variance

comparing variance in the dependant variable in the three or more groups to the dependant variable


antecedent variable

independent variable that logically come before another independent variable


association

a change in one variable happens with the change in another variable


authority

accepted as fact based on the position of who tells you


bar chart

frequency distribution at the nominal and ordinal level


benchmarks of acceptable risk

accepted levels of risk for determining probability


beta weight

slope of a regression line after standardization


bivariate analysis

analysis of two variable simultaneously to determine if there is a relationship


Boolean Connectors

internet searches using and or not


call numbers

library numbers


case study

examining in detail on only one occasion


causal chain

variables linked together that explain a dependent variable


causal hypothesis

independent variable always changes another variable


causation

change in dependent variable caused by the independent variable.


census

gather data from every member of a population


census data

information collect by govt about entire population


chi square

cross tabulation data to determine significance


classic experimental design

random subjects with control group and experimental group


cleaning data

checking and correcting data


closed ended question

limited answers that they must choose from


cluster sampling

clumping population based on a criteria


codebook

equates answers to values for calculation


coefficient of determination

r2 variation of dependent variable explained by independent variable.


coefficient of multiple determination

r2 variation of dependent variable explained by all the independent variables in multivariate analysis.


collapse a variable

combine variables


comparative value statement

compare relative values of variables


comparison group

not randomly assigned control group


compound hypothesis

hypothesis with two or more variables


concept

organized characteristics of objects, phenomena and ideas


conceptualization

defining concepts so meaning are concise


concurrent validity

validity is demonstrated by measuring the predictor and criterion at the same time


condensed table

multivariate table with only one dependent variable being shown


confidentiality

information provided by subject will not be revealed


confounding factors

independent variables may affect dependent variables


consistency bias

people answering question answer questions in a way to sound logical and consistent


construct validity

extent in which a measure entirely covers a concept


content analysis

collect and analyze written and electronic media


content validity

measure covers the full meaning of a concept


contingency questions

filter question


control group

identical to experimental group but are not exposed to the experiment


control variable

constant variable used to determine relationship between two other variables


convenience sampling

haphazard samples


criterionrelated validity

extent a measure is related to something it should be related to


cross tabulation

one variable is classified in terms of another


cumulative percentage

additive percentage of cases


data archives

collected data from previous research


data file

computer file that stores data


data matrix

template used to organized data


debriefing

explaining experiment to subjects after the experiment


deductive reasoning

generalizations are used to make specific statements


dependent variable

changes in a variable is effected by an independent variable.


description

information about a single variable or a single case


descriptive question

a question asking about reality rather than seeking an answer.


descriptive statistics

summary of values of a single variable measuring central tendency.


deviation score

difference between the value of a variable and the mean of the distribution, added together always equals zero.


dichotomous variable

variable with only two values.


direction of a relationship

how two variables are associated (positive or negative)


directional hypothesis

hypothesis that states how two variables are related.


disproportionate stratified sample

sample elements are disproportionately represent when compared to the population.


ecological fallacy

stereotypes used to make decision about individuals


elaboration

examining effects of control variables on the relationship of two variables.


element

something that a researcher collects information on.


empirical political analysis

a method of testing one ideas about politics by collecting/analyzing data.


empirical question

a question that can be answered by gathering information and analyzing that data.


error component

Unexplained variation of the dependent variable in a regression equation


evaluative statement

statement made based on personal experiences.


event statistic

data used to collectivities such as countries or cities.


expected frequency

expected frequency if variables are unrelated.


experimental group

group in an experiment exposed to the experiment


experimental mortality

loss of members for control and experiment groups over the length of the study.


explanation



explanatory question

A question about why something exists or the cause of some behavior


extensive approach

getting a small amount of information from a large sample


external validity

results of an experiment can be generalized to other groups of situations


FTest

statistical significance among the means from three or more analysis groups.


face validity

makes sense based on common definition


factorial design

design in which more than one independant variable is employed


faith

knowledge not based on proof


field experiment

real world setting


filter question

screening question


frequency distribution

value present in numbers and percentages


frequency polygon

line graph with interval/ratio on X axis and frequency/proportion on Y axis


gamma

a statistic that indicates the strength and relationship of two variables


histogram

bar chart where width measures interval and all bars touch which measures duration.


history

life events that effect the way people may answer a question.


hypothesis

statement of relationship that can be tested


hypotheticaldeductive system

observation results in generalizations about the world


independent variable

the variable that is not effected by the dependent variable.


index

how you measure indicators to determine a concept


indicator

observable evidence


inductive reasoning

specific observation used to make a generalization


informed consent

telling the subject what you are going to do an them agreeing freely


institutional review board

reviews research to protect humans


instrumentation

developing measurement devices


intensive approach

lots of quests to a small group


interactive effect

effect of two or more variables on one dependent variable


intercoder reliability

reliability between codebooks


internal validity

how much changes in the indep variable changes the dependent variable.


interquartile range

range of value represented by middle 50%


intersubjective agreement

level of agreement between two people on how and event should be described


interval level of measurement

scale of measurement that not only rank orders but also shows equal interval between values


intervening variable

control variable placed between the independent and dependent variable.


investment

believing something because of personal stake in it being true.


judgmental data

measures that are based on the opinions of experts in categorizing units of analysis


judgmental sample

selected sample units believed to be representative of a population


keywords and phrases



lambda

Stat that measures strength of association at the nominal level


latent content

deeper meaning of media messages grouped by content analysis


levels of measurement

amount of information and levels of precision


liner regression analysis

best fit line between multiple variables


logic

knowledge through mental thought


macro level of analysis

analysis of units for things that can be described geographically


main effect

direct effect of independent variable on dependent variables


manifest content

easily understood content of media messages


marginals

totals of columns and rows


maturation

change in subject to time


mean

a measure of the central tendency for variables


measurement

numbers are assigned units of analysis to determine worth


measurement error

difference be a concept and its operational definition


measure of association

strength and relationship between a variable


measures of central tendency

the most frequent value


measure of dispersion

distance from the central tendency


median

middle point of a distribution


median group

group that contains the median


micro level of analysis

focus on people vs countries


modal category

variable that contains the greatest number of cases


mode

the most frequently occurring variable


multigroup design

an experimental group is added for each independent variable above two.


multigroup time series design

design with multiple pre and post tests


multiple correlation coefficient

a measure of association between a dependent variable and tow or more independent variables


multiple linear regression

measuring the relationship between a dependent variable and two independent variables while holding one independent variable constant


multistage cluster sampling

groups are sampled in the early stages and individuals in the late stages.


multivariate analysis

looking at the relationships of two or more variables


multivariate percentage table

percentage table showing relationship between three of more variables


natural experiment

experiment where experiment and control group occur naturally in nature and are not chosen by the researcher.


necessity

changes in an independent variable are necessary to change the dependent variable


negative relationship

relationship is opposite


nesting

grouping multivariate analysis


nominal definition

definition using words assigned by the researcher


nominal level of measurement

analysis without ranking


nonprobability sample



nonrandom measurement error



normal curve

frequency curve with a bell shape


normative question

value laden question for evaluation


null hypothesis

no relationship between variables


observed frequencies

number of cases found in each cell of cross tabulation


onetailed test

testing the directional hypothesis by comparing two means


open ended question

questions that allow people to write their own answers.


operationalization

defining concepts that allow them to be measured


ordinal level of measurement

classifies units of analysis into categories that have hierarchal order difference between the categories is unknown


outlier

plotted value outside the trend


PSample

the sample of persons analyzed in a study using the Qtechnique


parameter

the boundaries of an analysis


partial regression coefficient

how much change in the dependent variable if you only change one independent variable and all the other independent variables remain constant


percentage table

display proportion as opposed to raw numbers


percentile



plagiarism



population

total set of units for analysis


population element

single member of a population


positive relationship

relationship between variable moving in the same direction


posttest

measurement of the dependent variable after being exposed to the independent variable


prediction



predictive validity



prescriptive value statement

a value statement characterized by words like should and ought


pretest



pretesting



probability sample



program evaluation



proportionate reduction of error

predicts relationship strength between two variables


proportionate stratified sampling

sample populations are selected based on known population elements


Qsample

deliberate sample of statements taken from a group of communications


Qsort

viewpoints selected from strong agreement to strong disagreement


Qtechnique

data collection of human subjectivity


qualitative research methods

used to describe a situation in a natural surrounding


quasiexperiment

a sort experiment


quota sampling

sampling based on percentage appearing in nature


random assignment



random digit dialing



random measurement error

random error that can be expected in an experiment


range

difference between high and low variable


ratio level of measurement

has true zero point as well as all the lower levels of measurement


recode a variable

combining variables to simplify


recording units



reducing effect

reducing the strength of the first two variables when a third one is added.


refining effect

the original relationship survives only when the third variable is controlled


regression coefficient

the slope of a regression line represented as b.


regression line

line that best fits a scatter plot


reliability

consistency of measurement


replication

third variable added does not change the first two.


research design

plan to show how hypothesis will be answered


residual



response set bias



revealing effect



reversal effect

third variable changes the first two to opposites


saliency bias

early question shapes future response


sample



sample element



sampling error



sampling frame



sampling interval



sampling ratio



scale



scatter plot

used to graphically show the relationship between dependent (Y axis) and independent Xaxis) variables


science



secondary analysis



selfadministered questionnaires



simple post design



simple random sample



slope

shows change in indep and dependant variables


snowball sampling

small group recommends people with similar interests for sampling


Solomon four group design

adds two groups the classic experiment to limit bias from the pretest


splithalves method

splitting a group giving them the same test an comparing the results


SPSS

Statistical Package for the Social Sciences


spurious relationship

a relationship that appears casual but is the result of a third variable


standard deviation

measure distance from the mean


standard error

show sampling error


standard error estimate

square root of the average squared error


standard score

scores converted to standard deviation units


statistic

estimate of population parameter


statistical significance

likelihood that a relationship found exists in the general population


stratified sampling



strength of relationship

how much constantly variables move together


syntality variables

Variables that describe the qualities of a region or group as a whole, such as American Cities that have city manager forms of government


systematic sampling

Sampling by selecting for inclusion every nth element on a list


ttest

A statistical procedure to determine the level of statistical significance between means from two analysis groups


tautology

a statement that is true by definition and cannot be confirmed or falsified


temporal order

Used to infer causality


testretest method

double test at two different points in time to measure validity


theoretical population

the population about which the researcher want to develop generalizations


theories of the middle range

theories offering reasonable accurate explanations of a limited number of social behaviors


theory

something used to explain an occurrence


time series graph



twotailed tests

testing the null hypothesis by comparing the two means


Type I error

False positive


unit of analysis

false negative


univariate statistics

stats that describe a single variable for the purpose of description


unobtrusive measures

Measurement that does not involve direct interaction


validity

measure reflect concept to be measured


variable

unit of analysis that takes on more than one variable


variable name



variance

measure of dispersion


writing handbook



Yintercept

where line crosses y axis


zscore

A standard score that indicates the number of standard deviation units that a score differs from the mean.
