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40 Cards in this Set

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Norman Triplett (1897)
Conducted the first experiment in the areas of social facilitation and social-psychological. Discovered that cycling with people boosts an individual's performance
Coleman Griffith (1920s)
Father of American Psychology, conducted research with baseball and football teams
Dorothy Yates (1940s)
Used relaxation training intervention with college boxers
Dorothy Harris (1972)
Developed the first graduate sport psychology program and became the first female president
Bruce Ogilive (1960s)
Father of American applied sport psychology
In what year was the Association of Applied Sport Psychology established (AASP)?
1986
In what year did an officially recognized sport psychologist accompany the US olympic team?
1988
In what year did AASP establish the certified consultant guidelines? How many guidelines were passed?
1991. Over 400 guidelines were passed
From 2001-present, what has been happening in the field of sport psych?
Graduate programs are on the rise, more specializations for exercise, performance and military psych.
What are the three sport psych orientations?
Psychophysiological, social-psychological and cognitive-behavioral
What different fields is sport psych very similar to?
Sports medicine, sport sociology and social psychology
What is sport psychology?
It is the study of psychological factors that affect performance (athlete's anxiety, coaches' reinforcement). It is also the study of the impact of sport participation on psychological factors
Describe the psychophysiological orientation
Focus on examining the physiological processes of the brain and their influences on physical activity (heart rate, brain activity and muscle action potentials)
Describe the social-psychological orientation
Focus on the complex interaction between the environment and one's personal makeup (i.e. coaches leadership style)
Describe the cognitive-behavioral orientation
Focus on thoughts or cognitions as a crucial part in determining behavior
What are the two specialities in sport psychology?
Clinical and educational
What is the main difference between the two specialities?
Clinical sport psychologists are licensed and able to treat athletes who have severe emotional disorders while educational sport psychologists are more "mental coaches"
What is the psychodynamic approach of studying personality?
Freud-Id, Ego, Superego. Delves into unconscious aspects of behavior. Interested in the whole person, childhood experience. Not commonly used
What is the trait approach of studying personality?
Personality traits are stable and enduring; staying consistent across situations. Strong likelihood of predicting behavior
What are the big five personality traits used in the trait approach questionare?
1) Extraversion 2) Agreeableness 3) Conscientiousness
4) Neuroticism 5) Openness
True or False: The role of situational and environmental factor is minimal to psychologists that follow the trait approach
True
Name some research findings in the trait approach studies
Male soccer players who go up for more headers have higher extraversion; Team sport athletes score high in agreeableness while individual sport athletes score high in conscientiousness
Describe the athletic motivation inventory that was proposed by Ogilvie in 1971
It claimed to predict guarantee athletic success by profiling an athlete's personality
What is the gravitational hypothesis?
Specific personality traits determine an athlete's success however, elite athletes exhibit similar profiles
What is the change hypothesis?
Personality changes due to sport participation
Describe the situation approach in studying personality
Behavior is determined largely by the situation or environment (social learning theory), modeling-observation, social reinforcement (rewarded behaviors are repeated)
What is the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionare?
Asks "how have you been feeling the past week including today?" Choose between 5 negative feelings: tension, depression, anger, fatigue, confusion and one positive feeling: vigor
What is Morgan's Iceberg profile (1979)?
Successful athletes will display the one positive mood state/mental health. Will predict which athletes will be successful
What are some flaws in the situation approach?
Mood states of athletes fluctuate when compared to the general population; timing is important
Describe the interactional approach in studying personality
Claims the situation and personality traits both impact behavior. Breaks down personality into three different levels
What are the three personality levels in the interactional approach?
Psychological core, typical responses, and role-related behavior
Describe psychological core
True attitude and values, the "real you"
Describe typical responses
Usual reactions and behaviors in a situation, which could reflect a person's psychological core or not
Describe role-related behavior
Different situations require different roles, which are influenced by the environment
What is the difference between a state and trait measure?
Trait measure is how a person generally feels while state measure is how a person feels in the moment
Describe the general feeling of tests being used to help select athletes for a team
It should not be the only factor, tests don't accurately predict future champions, and there is no cause and effect relationship
Why do sport psychology consultants use tests/questionares?
Athlete is unsure or has a hard time verbalizing, it's a good starting point or baseline to measure progress, quick way to get info from a large team, and see the cohesiveness of a team
Name some of the disadvantage of using tests/questionares
Preconceived notion about athlete, invalid tests (where and who the test was made and made for), societal expectations, personal bias of person giving the test, "athletes hate paperwork"
Name the procedures followed for administering a test
Sport-specific measures, trained administrator, explain purpose and who will see results (social desirability), appropriate timing, provide feedback and intra-individual analysis
True or False: General personality scales predict behavior more reliably than do situation-specific measures.
False