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98 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Multiple Sclerosis
Autoimmune disorder in which the lymphocytes attack the myelin proteins
Upper Motor Neurons
Arise from the voluntary motor area of the cortex
All conscious sensation
Travels to the thalmus before going to another location
Epindural Space
Located between the bony vertebrae and the dural sheath and filled with a padding of fat and a network of veins
Posterior median suleus
Posteriour fissure of the spinal cord
Meninges have ______ layers, 1)_______, 2)________, 3)________
dura mater (outer layer)
arachnoid (middle)
pia mater (inner)
An _________ injection of anesthetic is placed immediately outside the dura mater
Lumbar Plexus includes
Genitofermoral, Obturator, and formal
Sacrul Plexus includes
Gluteal nerves, Sciatic nerve
Outer covering (sheath) around each fascisles or nerve bundles
The impairment or loss of motor or sensory function in thoracis, lumbar, or sacral. Neurological segements secondary to damage of the spinal cord
Subdural Space
Space between the arachnoid mater and the dura mater
Nerves to the exernal genitallia
Gluteal nerves (superior and inferior)
Superior innervates the gluteus medius and minimus, inferior innervates the gluteus maximus
outer covering around individual nerve fibers
Motor/Sensory function in the cervical spinal segments are impaired or lost dure to damage to the spinal cord. Loss of use of arms, legs, and pelvic organs
Decending tracts are?
Coriticospinal, Extrapyramidals, and lateral coriticospinal
Conus medullaris
Spinal Cord Terminus
The subarachnoid space contains _______ as does the ___________ space
cerebrospinal fluid

Nerves to the adductor muscles
Spinocerebellar tract
Spinal cord to cerebellum-unconscious muscle sense (proprioception. Constantly recieves muscle stretch, contractions, etc.
Filum terminate
Meningeal extension beyond the spinal cord terminus
Cerebrospinal fluid
Found in and around the spinal cord and brain
Anterior median fissure
Anterior fissure of the spinal cord
_________ a collection of cell bodies located outside the CNS
The spinal ______ or dorsal ______ contains the cell bodies of sensory neurons entering the spinal cord at that region

Innervates the skin and muscles of upper thigh, including the quadriceps
Outer covering (sheath) around the nerve bundles
Names of Motor Tracts
Start with the part of the brain (orginator)e.g. corticospinal - starts in the cerebral cortex
Extrapyramidal tracts
Rubrospinal, Vestibulospinal (etc) - muscle tone and balance
Spinothalmic Tract
Spinal cord to thalmus and cerebral cortex - pain, temperature, crude touch, and pressure
Foramen Magnum
Most superior boundry of the spinal cord
Largest of the nerve bundles of the lumbar plexus
Bundles of nerve fibers or axons
White Matter fibers are surrounded by?
Fasciculus Gracilis & Cuneates
Spinal cord to cerebral cortex - conscious propioception and discrimative touch
Dentculate ligament
Saw-toothed shelves of pia mater, which secure the spinal cord to the bony wall of the vertebral column along its length
The spinal nerve contains the fibers of the ______ and _____ neurons?

A nerve does not contain any _____
Cell bodies
The cell bodies of nerves are located in _____ or in the _____ matter.
Ganglion (sensory)

Gray (motor)
The ganglion contains the cell bodies of the _____ nerves.
The gray matter contains the cell bodies of the _____ nerves.
______ a group of fibers inside the CNS.
Each plexus gives rise to new combinations of fibers as the _____.
Peripheral Nerves
Cervical Plexus
The phrenic nerve travels through the thorax to innervate the diaphram.
____ innervates the diaphragm?
Phrenic nerve
Brachail Plexus includes:
Axillery nerve, Musculocutaneous nerve, Radial nerve, Median nerve, Ulnar nerve
Axillary nerve
Innervates the deltoid muscle and shoulder along the posterior aspect of the upper arm.
Musculocutaneous nerve
Innervates anterior skin of upper arm and elbow flexors.
Radial nerve
Innervates dorsal aspect of the arm and extensors of the elbow, wrist, and fingers, abduction of thumb.
Median nerve
Innervates the middle elbow, wrist, and finger flexors, adducts the thumb.
Ulnar nerve
Innervates the medical aspect wrist and fingers flexors.
The spinal cord ends at _____?
Second lumbar vertebra
Cauda equina
The bundle of nerve roots which extend past the end of the spinal cord.
Removing cerebrospinal fluid is accomplished at _____?
The sac of meninges below the conus medullaris.
Somatic or musculocutaneous areas served by fibers from specific spinial nerves.
The map of Dermatomes?
Is very useful in diagnosing the origin of certain somatic pain, numbness, tingling etc. When these symptoms are caused by pressure or inflamaion of the spinal cord or nerve roots.
Referred pain
Caused when the sensory fibers from an internal organ enter the spinal cord in the same root as fibers from a dermatome. The brain is poor at interpreting visceral pain and interprets as it as pain. (somatic area of the dermatome)
A _____ is an interconnection of fibers which form new combinations.
What are the 4 voluntary plexuses?
Cervical plexus, brfachial plexus, lumbar plexus, and sacral plexus
Spinal tracts are always located in the ________ matter.
_____ an area of unmylinated neurons where cell bodies and synapses are located.
Gray Matter
An area of mylinated fibers in the CNS which contain fiber tracts.
White Matter
Cell bodies of the ____ and _____ neurons are found in the _____ matter.


At _____ places along the spinal cord the dorsal and ventral roots come together to form _____.

Spinal Nerves
Spinal nerves contain both _____ and _____ fibers, as do most nerves.

There are 8 _____, 12 _____, 5 _____, 5 _____, and 1 _____ nerves.
Nerve C1 arises between the _____ and _____ (1st cervical vertebra) and C8 arises between the 7th _____ and 1st ______ vertebra.



The spinal cord is?
The connection center for the reflexes as well as the afferent(sensory) and efferent(motor) pathways for the body below the neck.
The spinal cord begins _____ and ends _____?

Second lumbar vertabra
Sensory neurons have their cell bodies in the ____ of the spinal cord.
Spinal (dorsal root) ganglion
The axons of sensory neurons travel from the dorsal root into the _____ matter of the spinal cord.
The axons of motor neurons travel through cord through the _____ root.
The white matter contains the _____ which ascend and descend the spinal cord.
Spinal tracts
Nodes of Ranvier are?
Gaps between the schwann cells
Nodes of Ranvier permit?
An impulse to travel faster because it doesn't need to depolarize each ara of a membrane, just the nodes. (saltatory conduction)
Regeneration of PNS fibers depends on?
-Damage must be far from the cell body
-Amount of axoplasm lost
-Mylein sheath and neurilemma tunnel must be intact
-Macrohages must be present and phgocytize protiens
Anterograde degeneration
Degeneration destroys the axon distal to the point of damage.
Retrograde degeneration
Causes the fiber to degenerate for a distance back toward the cell body.
Spinal tracts are located in the _____?
White matter of the spinal cord
Ascending tracts
Travel up the spinal cord to the brain (sensory tracts)
Descending tracts
Travel down the spinal cord away from the brain (motor tracts)
Sensory tract names start with _____ and end at _____?
-Start with spino,

-Part of the brain where the tract leads (eg. spinothalamic tract)
The ______ supplies buoyancy for the spinal cord and brain to help provide shock absorption.
Cerebrospinal fluid
A _____ removes a section to relieve pressure and pain.
The meningeal sack below the end of the spinal cord at L2 can be used to withdraw _____ (a lumbar tap) without risking damage to the cord.
Cerebrospinal fluid
The cauda equina means _____ in Latin.
Horses tail
Ascending Tracts are?
Sinocerebellar, spinothalmic, Fasciculus Gracilis & Cuneates
Beneath the dura layer o the meninges is the __________ which has a ________ consistancy

spider web
Cauda equina
Collecton of spinal nerves traveling in the vertibral canal below the terminus of the spinal cord
Coriticospinal Tract
From cerebral cortex to spinal cord motor neurons - voluntary motor control (pyramidal)
Lateral Corticospinal tract
Fibers crossover in the pyramids of medulla - control muscles on opposite sides
Myelin sheaths does?
Provide insulation, provide faster conduction, provides for the possibility or repairs to PNS fibers (CNS fibers do not mend they form scar tissue)
Sciatic nerve
Consists of the tibial and peroneal, innervates most of the leg including the flexors of the knee, part of the adductor magnus for plantar flexion, dorisflexion, and other movements of the foot and toes
Subarachnoid Space
Area between arachnoid mater and the pia mater
Spinal tracts carry information up or down the ______ to or from the ______.
Spinal cord

_____ matter surrounds gray matter in the spinal cord.
____________ surrounds the spinal cord an the brain