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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Plato
Student of Socrates; founder of Academy of Athens-first university in western world; wrote Socrates dialogue- primary source of knowledge of Socrates; believed rhetoric a tool that empowered men (428-328 BC)
Aristotle
Student of Plato; "Great Classifier"; author of Rhetoric-first speech book; less than 1/3 of work survived, but thought of as most influential western thinker; proofs, speech categories (382-322 BC)
Sophists
Argued that beyond a mere “tool”, rhetoric (public speaking) was a worthy pursuit in and of itself;
argued that rhetoric was more than a means for the powerful, but a means of gaining power; Gorgias, Protagoras, Isocrates, Corax and Tsias
Gorgias
Sohpist who wrote Technai- sophist manual of rhetorical instruction (487-376 BC)
Protagoras
Sophist who argued rhetoric was an ennoble profession and virtue could be taught (490-420 BC)
Isocrates
Sohpist, first "ghostwriter" (436-388 BC)
Corax and Tsias
The paradox of Sophistry
Shannon and Weaver
Both academics and engineers; published Mathematical Theory of Communication 1948- recognized as first theoretical model of communication
Shannon-Weaver Model
Theories study the cognitive quantification of information, and conceived of humans as communicating machines who created, dispensed, accepted and processed data; This is a "transmission" model of communication (assumes the "machines" work properly and messages are received in the same way they are intended to mean)
Values
Our most general ideas of what's "good" and "bad" in life
Beliefs
The ways we perceive reality to be either in line with or contradictory of our values; This adds more nuance and definition to our views than the basic polarity (good/bad) we get from values
Attitudes
The case-by-case opinions we hold about specific things we encounter in life; Developing these toward things over a lifetime allows us to have well-rounded lives with varied interactions and more complete descriptions of our experiences
Audience Analysis
Recognizing the likely values, beliefs and attitudes inherent to your audience is key to tailoring your message for maximum effectiveness
Communication Apprehension
An individual's level of fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated communication with another person(s)." -McCroskey
McCroskey's Types of Communication Apprehension
Trait-"shy"; Context-fear certain types of communicating, Person/Group- fear addressing certain group, Situational-describes everyone's apprehension,
Causes for PSA
Novelty, formality, subordinate status, peer evaluation, dissimilarity, conspicuousness, lack of attention, prior history
PSA Coping Steps
Cognitive modification-change way you feel; Systematic desensitization- practice; Skills training- outlining
Socrates
"Gadfly"- challenged the Athenian government; recognized PS as powerful/destructive tool; logically argued truth-dialectic (469-399 BC)
Ethos
Credibility of speaker
Pathos
Using emotions to appeal to/influence an audience
Logos
Use of logic to appeal to audience
Syllogism
A three-part argument consisting of a general case, specific case and conclusion.
Deductive reasoning
Reasoning from a general condition to a specific instance.
Enthymeme
Syllogism presented as a probability rather than as an absolute, and it states either a general case or a specific case but not both. The case not stated is implied and serves as a mental tool for connecting the speaker and audience.
Parts to Intro/Conclusion
Attention gainer/memorable end statement, thesis, preview of main points
Attention gainers
statistics/research, anecdotes, humor, anaphora, rhetorical question
Topical Pattern Info Arrangement
"Categorical"; works best for informative speaking; helps refine topic info with wide variety of possible sub-topics; conveys material of equal importance; order doesn't matter
Chronological Pattern Info Arrangement
"Temporal"; presents points in sequential order, emphasizing points' importance relative to one another to maintain coherence of information; common uses: historical accounts, biography, instruction
Citing outloud
Author, text, date
Types of outlines
Sentence, phrase, keyword