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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
transmission of meaning from a sender to a receiver
communication
a word or phrase that creates audience expectations
verbal cue
slanting the information positively or negatively
selective presentation
chronological, topical, or spatial
patterns of organization
organization based upon the principle of time
chronological
organization based upon breaking a topic down into its subparts
topical
organization based upon the principle of space or geographical location
spatial
movement, reality, proximity, familiarity, novelty, suspense, conflict, humor, or relevance
factors of attention
can be physical movement in the sense of walking or internal movement in the sense of giving the audience the idea that the speech is progressing toward its end
movement
instead of talking in abstractions, talk in terms of actual people, events, place and circumstances
reality
a direct reference to an object near at hand, to an incident which just occurred, or to a member of the audience
proximity
connecting something unfamiliar to something about which the audience already knows-- usually employed in process speeches
familiarity
making the audience view a common, ordinary everyday object or event from an entirely new or unexpected perspective-- involves a great deal of creativity on the part of the speaker
novelty
creating uncertainty by pointing out results which have mysterious or unknown causes or by calling attention to forces which threaten uncertain effects
suspense
opposition of persons, ideas, or forces
conflict
amusing anecdotes or allusions, jokes-- can be employed only by the past experienced public speakers
humor
relating topic of speech to immediate needs of audience
relevance
manuscript, memorized, impromptu, or extemporaneous
types of delivery styles
read verbatim
manuscript
memorize and recite
memorized
no proparation or practice
impromptu
uses outine or note cards
extemporaneous
explanation, testimony, statistics, examples, or anology
types of evidence
statements that seek to define or clarify a concept
explanation
quotes taken from another source other than the speaker's own opinions or experience
testimony
use of percentages or numerical data
statistics
brief or extended narratives that demonstrate individual impact
examples
statements of comparison and contrast
analogy
speaker- low visiblity
audience- uninformed, apathetic, passive
delivery- extemporaneous
speaker-centered
speaker- high visibility
audience- informed, impacted, critical/active
delivery- manuscript
message-centered
purpose- to define an idea or concept, to explain a cause and effect, or to demonstrate a process
audience- uniformed, apathetic, passive
strategies- extemporaneous, simple introduction and conclusion, chronological/spatial/topical organization, factors of attention, possible visual aides
schema of oral report
purpose- to create a positive image of a corporation, city, military, or university
audience- uninformed, active, and critical
strategies- extemporaneous, 3 themes of public relations discourse, possible visual aides
schema of public relations speech
eye contact- direct and sustained
normalcy- vocal viriety/intensity and conversational quality
continuity- stumbling, hesitancy, and pauses
principle of extemporaneous delivery
speaker, message, receiver, channel, and feedback
elements of the communication process
attention device (illustration, rhetorical question, startling statement, or quotation) and initial summary
elements of introductions
verbal cue, summary statement, closing thought, and call for questions
elements of conclusions
expression of concern for the individual, recognition of individual contributions, espousal of shared values, advocacy of benefits and activities, praise by outsiders, and testimonials by employees
themes of public relations speeches