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38 Cards in this Set

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Creating common ground
A technique in which a speaker connects himself or herself with the values, attitudes, or experiences of the audience.
Problem-Solution order
A method of organizing persuasive speeches in which the first main point deals with the existance of a problem and the second main point presents a solution to the problem.
Question of Value
A question about the worth, rightness, morality, and so forth of an idea or action.
Reasoning form Principle
Reasoning that moves from a general principle to a specific conclusion.
Slippery Slope
A fallacy that assumes that taking a first step will lead to subsequent steps that cannot be prevented.
Speech to gain passive agreement
A persuasive speech in which the speaker's goal is to convince the audience that a given policy is desirable without encouraging the audience to take action in support of the policy.
Terminal Credibility
The Credibility of a speaker at the end of a speech.
Evidence
Supporting materials used to prove or disprove something.
Reasoning
The process of drawing a conclusion on the basis of evidence.
Reasoning from specific instance
Reasoning that moves from particular facts to a general conclusion.
Hasty Generalization
An error in reasoning from specific instances, in which a speaker jumps to a general conclusion on the basis of innsufficient evidence.
Casual Reasoning
Reasoning that seeks to establish the relationship between causes and effects.
False Cause
An error in casual reasoning in which a speaker mistakenly assumes that because one event follows another, the first event is the cause of the second. This error is often known by its latin name, post hoc, ergo propter hoc, meaning "after this, therefor because of this."
Analogical reasoning
Reasoning in which a speaker compares two similar cases and infers that what is true for the first case is also true for the second.
Invalid Analogy
An analogy in which the two cases being compared are not essentially alike
Fallacy
An error in reasoning
Red Herring
A fallacy that introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion.
Ad hominem
A fallacy that attacks the person rather than dealing with the real issue in dispute.
either-or
A fallacy that forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than two alternatives exist.
Bandwagon
A fallacy that assumes that because something is popular, it is therefore good, correct, or desirable.
Pathos
The name used by Aristotle for what modern students of communication refer to as emotional appeal.
Burden of Proof
The obligation facing a persuasive speaker to prove that a change from current policy is necessary.
Derived Credibility
The credibility of a speaker produced by everything she or he says and does during the speech.
Problem-Cause-Solution order
A method of organizing persuasive speeches in which the first main point identifies a problem, the second main point analyzes the causes of problem, and the third main point presents a solution to the problem.
Comparative advantages order
A method of organizing persuasive speeches in which each main point explains why a speaker's solution to a problem is preferable to other proposed solutions.
Monroe's Motivated Sequence
A method of organizing persuasive speeches in which each main point explains why a speaker's solution to a problem is preferable to other proposed solutions.
Ethos
The name used by Aristotle for what modern students of communication refer to as credibility.
Credibility
The audience's perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on given topic. The two major factors influencing a speaker's credibility are competence and character.
Initial Credibility
The credibility of a speaker before he or she starts to speak
Mental dialogue with the audience
The mental give-and-take between speaker and listener during a persuasive speech.
Target Audience
The portion of the whole audience that the speaker most wants to persuade.
Question of fact
A question about the truth or falsity of an assertion
Question of policy
A question about whether a specific course of action should or should not be taken.
Speech to gain immediate action
A persuasive speech in which the speakers goal is to convince the audience to take action in support of a given policy.
Need
The first basic issue in analyzing a question of policy: Is there a serious problem or need that requires a change from current policy.
Plan
The second basic issue in analyzing a question of policy: If there is a problem with current policy, does the speaker have a plan to solve the problem?
Practicality
The third basic issue in analyzing a qestion of policy: Will the speaker's plan solve the problem? Will it create new and more problems?
Persuasion
The process of creating, reinforcing, or changing people's beliefs or actions.