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88 Cards in this Set

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Pertaining to sound or to the sense of hearing
Acoustic
A branch of science dealing with hearing, especially the thrapy of individuals having impaired hearing
Audiology
Mucous membrane which lines eyelids and coats the front portion of the eyeball
Conjunctiva
State of balance or rest; condition in which contending forces are equal
Equilibrium
Pertaining to the sense of taste.
Gustatory
Light rays come to a focus behind the retina; farsightedness
Hyperopia
Intricate communicating passages of the internal ear
Labrynth
Light rays come to a focus in front of the retina; nearsightedness
Myopia
A physician who specializes in the medical & surgical treatment of disorders of the eye.
Opthalmologist
Pertaining to Smell
Olfactory
The science dealing with the eye & its diseases
Opthalmology
A person skilled in grinding lenses & fitting glasses
Optician
A person specially trained & licenses to examine the eyes for vision problems & to prescribe & adapt lenses to correct vision problems; professional degree is Doctor of Optometry - O.D.
Optometrist
The science dealing with the ear, its function, & its diseases
Otology
The science dealing with the ear, nose, & laarynx and their functions & diseases
Otorhinolaryngology (aka otolaryngology)
A receptor that respoonds to stimulioriginating within the body itself, especially those responding to pressure, position, or stretch. E.G. Labrynthine receptors (scilia in the labrynth)
Proprioceptor
Pain seeming to arise in an area other than its origin
Referred Pain
The general faculty by which conditions inside or outside the body are perceived.
Sense
Pain pertaining to structure of the body wall
Somatic Pain
Perceptible to the touch
Tactile
One of the three scroll-like bones which projects medially from the lateral wall of the nasal cavity; also called a nasal concha
Turbinate
Specialized nerve ending which received a stimulus
Receptor
The pathway which carries impulses (messages) from the receptor to the brain
Sendory Nerve
Area of the brain which interprets the impulses (messages) as senses (sensations)
Sensory Center
Special Senses & Their Organs
- Visual Sense: the Eye
- Hearing sense & Equilibrium: the Ear
- Smell sense: the Nose
- Taste sense: the Tongue
- Touch& Pain Sense: the Skin & Internal Organs
Outer Layer of the Eyeball
Outer Layer -- Sclera
1. Tough, white, fibrous, protective layer
2. Anterior portion is known as the cornea
a. Lies over the iris of the eye
b. Cornea is transparent
c. Cornea contains no blood vessels
3. THe remainder of the sclera is white, and is commonly known as the "white of the eye"
Middle Layer of the Eyeball
Middle Layer -- Choroid Coat
1. Contains the blood vessels that supply the eye

2. Anterior portion is modifies into 3 separate structures.
a. Iris: the colors part of the eye, shaped like a doughnut, which attaches to the ciliary body. (The opening in the middle is called the pupil)
b. Ciliary Body: a muscular ring that alters the shape of the iris
c. Suspensory Ligament: the structure that holds the lens in place
Three Layers of the Eyeball
1. Sclera
2. Choroid Coat
3. Retina
Inner Layer of the Eyeball
Inner layer of Eyeball -- Retina
1. "The camera of the eye": received image formed by lens

2. Innermost, incomplete coat of the eyeball which is found only in the posterior part of the eyeball (has no anterior portion)

3. Consists of specialized nerve tissue for the reception of light

4. Structure upon which light rays come to a focus

5. Contains tiny receptors (rods & cones) for vision

6. The pathway which conducts impulses from the receptors to the brain is the optic nerve.
a. The location where the optic nerve leaves the eyeball is known as the optic disk or "blind spot"
b. There are no receptors (rods & cones) located in the blind spot; therefore, light rays striking this area cannot be seen.
Watery, transparent liquid that circulates throughout the anterior cavity of the eye
Aqueous Humor
Clear, jelly-like fluid in the posterior cavity of the eye which fills the vitreous body.
Vitreous Humor
Muscles that attach to the outside of the eyeball & to the bones of the orbit.
Extrinsic Eye Muscles
- Voluntary muscles that move the eyeball in any desired direction

- Four are straight muscles:
1. Superior Rectus
2. Inferior Rectus
3. Medial Rectus
4. Lateral Rectus

- Two are oblique muscles:
1. Superior Oblique
2. Inferior Oblique

- The same muscle in each eye allows the individual to use both eyes to focus on the same field.
Characteristics of Extrinsic Eye Muscles
Muscles located inside the eyeball itself.
Intrinsic Eye Muscles
- Consists of two involuntary muscles

- Iris:
a. a doughnut shaped sphincter muscle resembling the spokes of a wheel
b. Regulates the size of the pupil & therefore the amount of light entering the eye.

- Ciliary Body
a. A flattened ring the size of the iris
b. Alters the shape of the iris
c. Changes the focus of the lens & adjusts the eye for distant & close-up vision
Characteristics of Intrinsic Eye Muscles
Accessory structures of the eye
1. Eyebrows & eyelashes
2. Eyelids (palpebrae)
- Give protection against foreign objects entering the eye

- Small glands at the base of the eyelashes also secrete a lubricating fluid.
Functions of the Eyebrows & Eyelashes
- Located in front of the eyeball

- Blink as a result of sensory stimuli to keep out foreign objects

- Consists of voluntary muscles & skin

- Are lined with mucous membrane called conjunctiva:
a. Conjunctival is transparent & continuous over the surface of the eyeball
b. Can become irritated & result in conjunctivitis (pink eye)

- The opening between the eyelids is called the palpebral fissure.

- The angles of the ends of the eyelids are known as the inner & outer canthus
Characteristics of Eyelids
- Secrete tears which keep the anterior surface of the eye moist & free from irritating particles

- Lacrimal glands are the size of small almonds & are located in the upper, outer portion of each orbit

- Nasolacrimal ducts are small tubes extending from the lacrimal sacks into the nose to drain tears from the eye into the nose.
Characteristics of Lacrimal glands & ducts
Helps prevent dust & foreign objects from entering the ear. Usually dries up and falls out of the ear canal. However, some people produce a lot of this, which can become impacted & can muffle incoming sounds.
Cerumen (Ear Wax)
Glands that secrete Ear Wax
Ceruminous Glands
- Auricle
- Auditory Canal
- Tympanic Membrane
Parts of the External (Outer) Ear
A flap of elastic cartilage shaped like the flared end of a trumpet & covered by skin.
Auricle (Pinna)
The rim of the auricle.
Helix
The inferior portion of the Auricle.
Lobule
The 3 smallest bones in the body:
- malleus (hammer)
- incus (anvil)
- stapes (stirrup)
Auditory Ossicles
Attaches to the internal surface of the eardrum. Its head articulate with the body of the incus.
Malleus
The middle bone in in the auditory ossicle series. Articulate with the head of the stapes.
Incus
Auditory ossicle whose base or footplate fits into the oval window.
Stapes
Tube which consists of both bone & hyaline cartilage, connects the middle ear with the nasopharynx.
Eustachian Tube
A series of cavities in the temporal bone divided into three areas:
1. the Semicircular Canals
2. the Vestibule
3. the Cochlea
Bony Labyrinth
A series of sacs & tubes inside the bony labyrinth & having the same general form. It is lined by epithelium & contains endolymph.
Membranous Labyrinth
fluid within the bony labyrinth that surrounds the membranous labyrinth. It is similar to cerebrospinal fluid.
Perilymph
The fluid within the membranous labyrinth of the internal ear. It contains an unusually high level of potassium ions wish plays a role in the generation of auditory signals
Endolymph
The oval central portion of the bony labyrinth
Vestibule
2 sacs that make up the membranous labyrinth of the vestibule
1. utricle
2. saccule
The portion of the membranous labyrinth that lie inside the bony semicircular canals & communicate with the utricle of the vestibule.
Semicircular ducts.
Three bony structures that project superiorly & posteriorly from the vestibule.
1. Anterior semi circular canal
2. Posterior semicircular canal
3. Lateral semicircular canal
Consists of ampullary, utricular & saccular nerves.
The vestibular branch of the vestibulocochlear nerver (Cranial Nerve VIII)
cell bodies of the sensory neurons of the ampullary, utricular, and saccular nerves are located in the __________ ___________.
Vestibular Ganglion
The membranous cochlea consisting of a spirally arranged tube enclosed in the bony cochlea & lying along its outer wall.
Cochlear Duct or Scala Media
A coiled sheet of epithelial cells, including supporting cells & about 16,000 hair cells.
Organ of Corti or Spiral Organ
receptors for hearing
Hair Cells
The 3 semicircular ducts, together with the saccule & the utricle, function in ________ ___________.
Dynamic Equilibrium
A swollen enlargement at the end of each of the semicircular canals.
Ampulla
a small elevation in the ampulla that contains a group of hair cells and supporting cells.
Crista
Sense of Smell
Olfaction
First order neurons of the olfactory pathway. Bipolar neurons whose exposed tip is a knob-shaped dendrite & whose axon ends in the olfactory bulb.
Olfactory Receptors
Site of olfactory transduction which are cilia that project from a dendrite of an olfactory receptor.
Olfactory Hairs
Chemicals that have an odor & can therefore stimulate the olfactory hairs.
Oderants
Columnar epithelial cells of the mucous membrane lining the nose. They provide physical support, nourishment, & electrical insulation for the olfactory receptors, & they help detoxify chemicals that come in contact with the olfactory epithelium.
Supporting Cells
Cells that continually undergo cell division to produce new olfactory receptors.

* remarkable because olfactory receptors are neurons, & in general, mature neurons are NOT replaced.
Basal Stem Cells
Glands that produce mucous that is carried to the surface of the epithelium by ducts.
Olfactory (Bowman's) Glands
On each side of the nose, bundles of the slender, un,myelinated axons of olfactory receptors extend through about 20 olfactory foramina in the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone. These 40 or so bundles of axons collectively form the right & left _________ ______.
Olfactory Nerves (Cranial Nerve I)
paired masses of gray matter where the olfactory nerves terminate in the brain.
Olfactory Bulbs
Axons of olfactory bulb neurons extend posteriorly & form the _________ _____. These axons project to the lateral olfactory area, which is located at the inferior & medial surface of the temporal lobe.
Olfactory Tract
Sense of Taste
Gustation
Oval body consisting of supporting cells, gustatory receptor cells, & basal cells.
Taste Bud
__________ ______ surround about 50 _________ ________ _____. A single, long microvillus, called a _________ ____, projects from each gustatory receptor cell to the external surface through the taste pore.
1. Supporting Cells
2. Gustatory Receptor Cells
3. Gustatory Hair
Taste buds are found in elevations on the tongue called ___________ which provide a rough texture to the upper surface of the tongue.
Papillae
4 types of Papillae
3 of them have taste buds
1. Vallate (Circumvallate) (taste)
2. Fungiform (taste)
3. Foliate (taste)
4. filiform (no taste)
About 12 papillae that form an inverted "V" at the back of the tongue.
Vallate (Circumvallate) Papillae
Mushroom shaped elevations scattered over the entire surface of the tongue.
Fungiform Papillae
Papillae located in small trenches on the lateral margins of the tongue.
Foliate Papillae
Pointed thread-like papillae that contain tactile receptors but no taste buds. Make it easier for tongue to move food in the oral cavity. Cover the entire surface of the tongue.
Filiform Papillae
Chemicals that stimulate gustatory receptor cells.
Tastants
Site of taste transduction
Plasma membrane of gustatory hair cells.
Reduced ability to smell.
Hyposmia