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12 Cards in this Set

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What are the six links in the chain of infection
1. Infectious agents, pathogens such as salmonella

2. Reservoir, where pathogens live and multiply

3. Portal of exit

4. Mode of Transmission, contact, droplet, injection etc...

5. Portal of entry, eyes nares mouth...

6. Susceptible host, person with inadequate defense
What are the stages of a typical infection process
1. Incubation, from time of infection until manifestation of symptoms

2. Prodromal, appearance of vague symptoms

3. Illness, signs and symptoms present

4. Decline, number of pathogens decline

5. Convalescence, tissue repair, and return to health
What are the barriers involved in the body's primary defense
1. Skin, prevents entry of pathogens

2. Respiratory Tree, nares trachea, and bronchi, are covered with mucous membranes that trap pathogens, which are then expelled

3. Eyes, tear production, tears contain lysozyme, an antimicrobial enzyme

4. Mouth, saliva contains lysozyme, an antimicrobial enzyme

5. The gastrointestinal tract, stomach acid, and bile from the small intestine destroy pathogens

6. The genitourinary tract, The mucous membranes in the genitourinary tract trap pathogens and expell them through urination and defecation
Describe four processes involved in secondary defense
The secondary defense mechanisms are activated if a pathogen gains entry into the body. Secondary defense mechanisms include:

phagocytosis, white blood cells engulf and destroy pathogens

the complement cascade, blood protiens called complement trigger the release of chemicals that attack the cell membranes

inflammation, increases the flow of phagocytes, antimicrobial chemicals, oxygen and nutrients to the damaged area

fever, rise in core body temprature inhibits multiplication of pathogens and triggers specific immunity
Compare and contrast humoral and cell-mediated immunity.
Humoral immunity, T-cells stimulate B-cells to become plasma cells and produce antibodies called immunoglobulins

Cell-mediated immunity, acts by directly destroying body cells that have become infected
Identify activities that promote immune function
1. Adequate nutrition

2. Hygiene

3. rest and exercise

4. Reduce stress

5. Immunizations
Discuss the factors that place an individual at increased risk for infection
Developmental stage, infants, young children, and elderly are at an increase risk for infection due to minimized active immunity

Any break in the skin also increases risk.

Illness and injury, especially chronic disease, limit an individual's ability to fight infection.

Smoking, substance abuse,

Multiple sex partners

Some medications inhibit the immune response of the body.

Environmental factors that increase exposure to pathogens increase risk for infection.

Nursing and medical treatments often provide portals of entry and exit or bypass natural defense mechanisms.
Identify standard precautions to prevent transmission of infection through blood and body fluids
handwashing, before and after gloving and between glove changes, and procedures on the same patient

gloves

remove gloves after use, avoid touching clean items

change gloves between procedures on the same patient if you have made contact with anything that may contain microorganisms

Wear mask and eye protection or face shield if splach or spay are likely

gown to protect skin and clothing, when there is a risk of spray or splash

carefully handle contaminated linnens

never re-cap needles

use mouthpiece or resuscitation bag
Compare and contrast methods of preventing infection by breaking the chain of infection
Encourage deep breathing and coughing

Reduce exposure to pathogens by using aseptic technique

Maintain skin integrity
encourage good nutrition

Reduce stress

Help and encourage ambulation

promote immune function through colaborative care
precautions that must be taken when there is concern about contact transmission
All standard precautions

Gown

Gloves

private room

double bag linnen

follow any aditional precautions specific to microorganism
precautions that must be taken when there is concern about droplet disease transmission
All standard precautions

All contact precautions

mask and eye protection within 3 feet
precautions that must be taken when there is concern about airborne disease transmission
All standard precautions

All contact precautions

Gown and glove when contacting patient or any items that have come into contact with patient or patient room

Respirator mask if Tuberculosis is suspected

If patient is suspected of having measles or chickenpox only immune caregivers provide care