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16 Cards in this Set

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Describe the role of religion in the development of nursing.
History demonstrates a strong link between nursing and religious orders. The first hospitals were started by the church, where decons would care for the ill.
• Identify the factors that led to the change of nursing from a vocation of men and women to a predominantly female profession
In the early church decons provided care to the men and deconesses provided care to the women. As men went to war the need for nurses was high and whomen were left to fill this roll. Womens liberation also helped lead to this trend
Explain the role of the military in the development of the nursing profession
The survival and well being of soldiers were critical. The Roman Empire developed military hospitals, and the practice of providing first aid on the battle front. With every war cam wounded soldiers, and the need to care for them. Army nursing service, and the Red Cross were established from this need
Discuss the transitions nursing education has undergone in the last century
Nursing Education over the last century has moved away from a 3 year certificate program, based at hospitals, many relgous affiliated, into a degree based (Assoc. or BA) college program
Differentiate among the various forms of nursing education for licensed practical nurses, licensed vocational nurses, and registered nurses.
LPN's and LVN's use a 1 year program, RN's use a 2 year program, RN's with a BSN take 8 semesters
Discuss the regulation of nursing practice
Through Nurse Practice Acts - state statute designed to: protect patients or society, define the scope of nursing practice, and identify the minimum level of nursing care that must be provided to clients. Provides for the regulation of nursing practice by an administrative board, such as the board of nurse examiners (or the “state board of nursing”). These boards generally have the authority to regulate nursing practice and education within the states, including licensing, credentialing, and disciplinary procedures.
Give four examples of influential nursing organizations
American Nurses Association (ANA)
Canadian Nurses Association (CNA)
National League For Nursing
International Councel of Nursing
National Student Nurse Association
Identify the recipients of nursing care
individuals, groups, families, or communities, and can be referred to as clients, patients, or persons
Name the four focuses of nursing care
Health Promotion
Illiness Prevention
Health Restoration
End of Life Care
The process by which a nurse acquires clinical skill and judgment
1. Novice, receptive to education and learning rules

2. Advanced Beginner, Considerable exposure to clinical situations, improving in performance, begining to use more facts and is more sophistocated in the use of rules. A new graduate usually functions at this level.

3. Competence, several years practice, gained additional experience, deal with more complex concerns, able to handle patient load and prioritize load

4. Proficient, resource for new nurses, able to see the big picture, coordinate services and forcast needs, mor flexable and fluent with their role, plan intuitively, as much as consciously

5. Expert, Expert nurses are able to see what need to be achieved, and how to do it. They trust in and use their intuuition, and are often consulted when others need advice.
Clinical Judgment
a process of observing, comparing, and evaluating the client's condition to draw conclusions about the client’s health status, determine whether change has occurred, and identify necessary interventions
Thinking Skills
Critical thinking, reflective thinking:

Involves collecting and analyzing information and carefully considering options for action

Problem-solving:

Considering an issue and attempting to find a satisfactory solution
Nursing is...
ANA, (1980): “The diagnosis and treatment of human responses to actual and potential health problems”
Why Define Nursing?
Help the public understand the value of nursing

Help differentiate activities of nursing from those of medicine

Help students understand what is expected of them
What are some Forces that Influence Nursing Practice
• Outside Nursing
• Economy
• Consumers
• Direct-to-consumer marketing
• Legislation
• Women’s movement
• Collective bargaining

• Inside Nursing
• Increased use of CAM
• Increased opportunity for roles, settings, and autonomy
• Divergence between high-tech and high-touch
excoriation
an abrasion of the skin or surface of other organs caused by scratching, trauma, chemicals, or burns; may occur on the skin if there is exposure to digestive enzymes in feces