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16 Cards in this Set

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Where and when did the Renaissance start?
Italy in the 14th century
Why did the renaissance start there?
big emphasis on what was human, italy was most advanced (educations important), aristocrats communicated with merchants, wealthy, artisans obtained patronage and stayed in Italy
Define Humanism.
medieval program of study built around 7 liberal arts: grammar, logic, rhetoric, arithmetic, music, geometry, and astronomy
Who is considered the father of Renaissance humanism?
Petrarch
What is a Petrarchan Sonnet?
Petrarch; 14 lines of iambic pentameter
How were women treated during the Italian Renaissance?
not respected; unintelligent or important; meant for marriage and child bearing
Who was Niccolo Machiavelli? What was his most famous work? and what were its premises?
Political writer; The Prince; End justifies means, follow in footsteps of great leaders, better feared than loved; careful of getting power in bad ways, no alliances with those who are more powerfull, dedicated to war, no mercenaries, sly fox and fierce lion, do it once harshly and then dont repeat it
Why did Renaissance decline?
war (french invasions), gradual trade shift from mediterranean to atlantic so loss of trade $, and counter-reformation
What is christian humanism?
focused education on scripture and christian ideas (rome wanted to control art and Lit. in order to spread Catholicism)
Who was the "prince of Christian Humanism? Describe his writing styles.
Erasmus; sarcasm and parody of everything but also serious pamphlets and treatises -- both were very popular
What happened to Sir Thomas More?
improsoned for not taking an oath naming Henry VIII as head of CHurch of England (they were friends but More accidentally murdered because someone overheard HVIII and so wanted to please him)
Why is the term Protestant Reformation not accurate?
because he was not reforming, he just broke from the church completely
What made Luther change his beliefs?
had a mystical experience -- worried how you get into heaven because you couldnt do enough good deeds, ustification by faith alone -- no matter what you do, if you believe, you'll get in
What were his three theological premises?
Justification by faith alone-- nothing you did got you in, Primacy of the Scripture--literal meaning over word, and Priesthood of all believers--not just pope and cardinals and priests who were "called", but anyone could be a priest -- wrote them to clarify what God wanted
What were his 95 Theses? Why did he write them?
objected to the Catholic indulgence doctrine -- wrong to sell tickets to heaven; written in latin and given to colleagues at Univ. of Wittenberg but somneone translated and dispersed -- it showed that the Pope was infallible
Why did Luther's theological premises uspet the Catholic Church and the Pope?
because it made it so that the priests wernt elite and spiritually above everyone else, the scripture rose above the popes word, only faith decides and the pope is fallible